Michael Thorburn: Your faculty advisor. So now we’re at 70 participants. We’ve got a full house. So let’s go ahead and get started without any further delay, let me introduce the 3D printer for concrete structures team.
Michael Thorburn: I’ll let them introduce themselves. Arthur Maciel: Okay, hello everyone. We are team 45 the 3D printer for concrete structures team. This is our senior design Expo our divisor was Dr. Draghi and our sponsors, where the advanced material and manufacturing lead as well as Cal State at least mechanical engineering department.
Arthur Maciel: This is a brief overview of how the presentation will flow. FirstlyWe’re going to present a few introductory slides to give you some background on the project. Arthur Maciel: Then we’re going to transition into technical progress that was made by both the mechanical and electrical sub teams.
And lastly, a few slides to conclude what we were able to accomplish during the senior design project. Arthur Maciel: before all else, we would like to touch on the team organization and highlight some key items that each member contributed to starting from the left, I am art. The myself and the team lead and also an Emmy for the project. Arthur Maciel: I contributed the most to the prototype. Second, we have Kimberly been through another me.
She handled all of the solid works modeling and simulation for the team. Next we have commonly, who is also an Emmy. She handled the logistics, as well as working on pump research. Arthur Maciel: Next we have Henry child who is the electrical team lead and also an ear for the project.
He managed the firmware code and worked with me on the prototype. Arthur Maciel: Lastly, we have Sergio Rodriguez another he he worked on the power configuration and analysis of the motors as a team. We all contributed to the gantry design and other aspects.
Arthur Maciel: To begin, we wanted to mention some current additive processes. You may be familiar with. So starting from the left is what most people think of when they hear 3D printing. Arthur Maciel: It’s a process known as fused deposition modeling and prints using material extrusion of polymers. Arthur Maciel: These small scale printers are advancing day by day and becoming more accessible.
Arthur Maciel: In the middle, there’s a more broad example of material extrusion, which can be used to print other materials such as ceramics are partnering team of graduate students is actually using a similar model to the one explainn to print and test their concrete mixes. Arthur Maciel: On the right we have powder bit fusion and, as its name suggests, it involves a better metal powder that is hit by lasers, causing fusion between the particles and then it gets covered by another layer of powder and then the process repeats until the print is complete. Arthur Maciel: So why are we putting concrete.
Arthur Maciel: The three biggest driving factors for this project were to be able to better provide aid during natural disasters to help with the homeless crisis and also to create new and more affordable housing options. Now I’d like to speak on some of the advantages of 3D printing structures. Arthur Maciel: So one of the key benefits to printing structures is the reduced cost of operations and construction due to automation. Arthur Maciel: For example, the yellow building that you can see here was printed by a Peace Corps and only cost about $10,150 Arthur Maciel: This price tag includes the 410 square foot structure with fixtures lighting ceiling floors doors and windows. Arthur Maciel: Another key benefit is being able to improve the thermal thermal and physical properties of a structure, since we can easily include insulation insulation material and metal bars during the print Arthur Maciel: So, moreover, the raw materials that can be used for printing can be eco friendly and sustainable.
Arthur Maciel: For instance, teams Orpheus, who won first place in NASA space habitat competition was able to construct their habitat using materials from its surroundings. Arthur Maciel: And last but not least, the construction of difficult Lee shaped structures is now more feasible with 3D printing. Arthur Maciel: This 3D printed hexagonal pod concept on the rate can shelter, a large number of people in a limited amount of space. This would be perfect for providing immediate shelters for the most vulnerable parts of society.
Arthur Maciel: With that, I’d like to state the objective of our project not only Arthur Maciel: We not only aim to design and simulate a miniscule 3D printer for concrete structures, but we also aim to make the printer affordable and with expand ability in mind. Arthur Maciel: By this we mean that we, the printer can continually print bigger and larger volumes by extending the frame of the 3D printer. Arthur Maciel: Next I’d like to pass it over to comment to go over the mechanical teams technical progress to date. Ka Mun Lee: And initial research, we find that most 3D printers out there, run on two different coordinate systems that polar on the left and the Cartesian on the right, also known as rectangular coordinate Ka Mun Lee: We looked at pros and cons of each and came to find came to a few conclusions Nepal corridor explainn on lap.
You could print large volumes without requiring a log entry part which makes it more affordable. Ka Mun Lee: And for clarification, the gantry is moving frame of the 3D printer that guides the extrusion of the material. However, it has a lot of complication when it came to designing the movement and its ability is also difficult to control.
Ka Mun Lee: The rectangle coordinate systems popular. Do you teach ease and operations. The ability to utilize different drive system and it’s easy encoding was also a benefit.
Ka Mun Lee: It is, however, constrained in terms of print volume, because it can only print within its country volume and speaking a bit sketchy. You can see from the right image, it requires a lot more material, which would add costs. Ka Mun Lee: We finally move forward.
We talked finally decide move forward with Director you coordinate system. Many because of its easy encoding and it’s movements in movement, the extra cost coming from the gantry can be justified as it provides a lot more stability. Ka Mun Lee: Following our initial objective we want a printer that has the extended warranty option to continue printing larger volume two additional frames.
Ka Mun Lee: This trunk explains what we were initially considering which is a printer on wheels or rails. Ka Mun Lee: This concept can continually print homes, one after the other by simply moving on to the next one after it’s done. Ka Mun Lee: This concept was inspired by current commercial printer concrete called the Vulcan to eventually we dropped off the rails and we also have this project as the mobile would be too much of a concern.
We made some modifications and we finally came to this. Ka Mun Lee: This country system. We really liked this country system because it only requires seven gantry pieces with one moving frame with one moving country when we decided on this after we designed this, we decided, move on for looking for trusses that make up the gantry system. Ka Mun Lee: As we would like to extend the only option we put a reconstructive will gantry frame into high consideration. Ka Mun Lee: And so we decided to move on the available.
Trust has to have a good reputation for reliability and strength. This is why we decided to adopt stage trusses stage process like these are normally lightweight and strong, which makes it during the desirable. Ka Mun Lee: In addition to that, as you can see here, they’ve been testing load tested by the manufacturer to ensure its strength of what you are the information given such as distributed load deflection maximum center point load is given, which gives us even more confidence in choosing Ka Mun Lee: It was much easier to work with speech trusses as they also come with other accessories that make building easier as such as deal based plates for stability and 90 degree corner. Ka Mun Lee: Next, we looked at different drives systems that we can implement for the x, y axis. After exploring different systems, we find that the best system to move the x and y axis court.
Ka Mun Lee: X and Y coordinate is using the belt system as it provides all necessary speed, strength, accuracy, and it’s going across. Ka Mun Lee: After that, we moved on to the z axis. Ka Mun Lee: We found that the most common option are the rack and pinion ballance group when Winship gleam chasm. Ka Mun Lee: We decided to adopt a winch, and lead you to its capability of moving large notes with it as to whether its accuracy. It does, however, have its own downfalls, such as it requires extra attention to detail detail paintings full size as when it retracts which perfect accuracy.
Ka Mun Lee: We also research some concrete pumps which are explainn here, this is these are the I’m or small mid 50 the I’m our coin 35 and the P AMP T rex LG for pump. Yes, that’s a very long game. Ka Mun Lee: These pumps have been used immensely in the building industry with the third one, the very far one on the right, being used in an actual commercial printer. Ka Mun Lee: The final selection of these plans for would be left to the next team who will be taking over the project. And now I would like to hand this back to Arthur, who will elaborate more on the system that we use and again Arthur Maciel: Thank you coming so as common mentioned earlier we selected a belt belt system for the x, y motion from our research, we decided on using an H bought system for this application because it reduce the amount of motors required from three to to Arthur Maciel: The largest trade off of this was that we now needed a much longer timing belt.
Arthur Maciel: This type of drive system works by using two motors simultaneously why motion occurs when both motors are spinning in the same direction and X motion occurs when they are spending in opposite directions. Arthur Maciel: From there you can spend the motors at different rates and directions so that you can move diagonally, and even create curves. Arthur Maciel: Because we were not able to continue with a full scale design.
We did the next best thing by making a prototype. Arthur Maciel: This prototype models are gantry designed very closely and was connected to the microcontroller for testing of Henry’s code. Arthur Maciel: On the right is an image of the full scale electrical components that were also wired together to verify their operation as well. Now, Kim will talk about the details of our drive systems and modeling.
Arthur Maciel: Thank you. Kimberly Ventura: Are there. And so from our prototype. We went on to modeling the full size printer where we needed to facilitate the X and Y motion. Kimberly Ventura: And we decided to use linear bearings as support rails.
As you can see here in comparison to a rack and pinion as a way to reduce the overall cost and we Kimberly Ventura: That would be placed on top of the trust and so after we completed the components selection for the x, y direction, we went ahead and developed a Z axis drive system. Kimberly Ventura: For the Z axis system. We had to accommodate the size and weight aspect of our project and to do so we created a design that features a modified version police system that is powered by a separate order. Kimberly Ventura: The design you see features a one to four gear ratio that allows the user to have more control over the timing step to turn the police.
Kimberly Ventura: For the Z axis accuracy was a particularly important factor to account for due to the variation of concrete thickness that can be executed during a print. And here is a motion example of Kimberly Ventura: Here’s a motion example of the z x y AMP Z axis featuring the components we selected. Kimberly Ventura: The main tresses you see will be built using 10 foot long stage trusses, giving a total print volume of 10 foot by 10 foot by 10 foot Kimberly Ventura: And the age part system we selected will be applied to the gantry using please please symmetrically to facilitate the ocean. Kimberly Ventura: The other components, including the linear bearings support rails motors employees will be mounted to the trust easy specially designed parts, the y axis.
You see, explaining a featuring a lightweight design, not only directs the y axis but also holds the Z axis components. Kimberly Ventura: I explained in the previous slide, the trusses we selected have a cylindrical geometry. So we had to design a part that would Kimberly Ventura: fix our components safely and to do so we had to determine if the parts were capable of handling the component weight and we conducted a load analysis.
As you can see here Kimberly Ventura: Using a distributed mass represented us the Purple Arrows and from our analysis, the parts reached a maximum of stress that was within the capable Kimberly Ventura: Capabilities of the expected material. Kimberly Ventura: And I’ll be handing it over to Sergio and Henry to go over it. The electrical team progress.
Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: Hello, I’m sorry. I’ll talk about the components calculations and wiring diagram. Well, Henry are talking about the block diagram firmware and software. Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: These are calculations for linear velocity angular Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: And torque values for various stepper motors to choose the cost efficient stepper motor the stepper motor chosen is the one that’s highlighted.
Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: It was relatively cheap with a high torque value stepper motor was chosen over several motors, because they are cheaper and do not need to move as fast and our projects. Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: Also was chosen over DC motor because a stepper motor is more easily programmable than a DC motor on our we know or other programmable devices. Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: These are the visions for the linear velocity and acceleration equations angular acceleration is a change of the last three four rotating object for linear velocity is the change of an optics position in time the valleys were used as one of the reasons to select the final motors. Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: A power supply converts AC voltage from an outlet to DC voltage that can be used to power a system. Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: Each power supply isn’t isn’t series to a stepper motor and it’s the promoter driver to provide power to the driver and motors.
Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: To connect more than once the promoter to a single power supply would result in insufficient power to run the motors, it would get very costly to buy power supplies that could supply power to all the promoters at once. Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: The Stepper Motor explain is a large separate separate driver that works with motors have voltage and current values that are explainn on the table. Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: A stepper driver is used to move the motor and steps like half step quarter, step one, step, and so on.
Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: The stepping settings can be changed with the last force which is by changing the frequency. Well, the Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: Current output of the motors has changed with the first force which is the graph explains the various stepping options for the drivers as well. Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: But as stepping increases the torque value decreases steps are easily explained, like a ladder, the amount of steps it takes to get up a ladder equals to full rotation from the motor Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: The background color chosen is the Arduino Mega 2560 board.
Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: And the relevant for attachment board. Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: They are relatively cheap and can be easily modified would have only the downside of heat dissipation. They are used to send code to the separate drivers to tell the system, how to move Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: The end stops or switches used to limit the print area near place at the end of the X, Y, and Z axis, the switches are normally close, which means the switches are turned on. When pressed Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: This is the final and wiring diagram the line voltage is connected to us to usable DC voltage by the power supplies, then the power supply. Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: Unit supply power to each kind of get stepper motor driver each driver is connected to a stepper motor, there are certain motors for the X, Y, and Z axis.
Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: The stepper motors and stops are connected to the woman for board. And finally, there is a reference point for board that is connected to the Arduino board. Sergio Rodriguez Jr.: That receive signal from the computer and firmware to print something next I’ll pass it over to Henry talk about those former and stuff for Henry Chau: All right, thank you.
So to start off here we have an overview block jargon of what’s needed for this 3D printer work because separate this into three layers. Henry Chau: The bottom layer. Everything’s has been hardware, the middle layer being everything that software which I’ll be focusing on. Henry Chau: The hardware components designed to be added to Henry Chau: 3D printer will be broken down through systems.
Once the gantry with other components suggested motion drivers. The second portion is the material delivery system to deliver Henry Chau: A controllable flow of concrete makes to print head. Lastly, you have to control the microcontroller dog joining the printer and the material delivery system.
Henry Chau: The second row is all the software use for this program, the left side explains the CAD software or 3D modeling and CAM software for slicing Henry Chau: The other software portion of the is the farmer or to control the 3D printer after combining both of these software’s incessantly. You could get a complete Henry Chau: The next slide.
Henry Chau: With computer a manufacturing as licensed software us for a reference to your host and Spicer VR. Henry Chau: So I seen as the name is cuts your 3D model insights into slices of layers echo versus into G code what Chico is is geometrical or Henry Chau: That is numerical code called commands us to use of it at the printer knows where to go. Henry Chau: It’s a language that 3D printers and CNC machines don’t understand is what allows controllability for the 3D printer.
As you can see on the top right corner. Henry Chau: You can think of G code as a 3D parties your system. The numbers. Next to X y&z representative point where the print head and also moved to Henry Chau: What’s neat about the software is also allows that final touches to your 3D model, for example, at the bottom right, but that’s customizable info patterns and application of this is when building how structures is to save a lot of materials needed for inside support. Next slide.
Henry Chau: The next software portion is the former configuration. One of the most important part. And second, semi project is getting the correct form or working Henry Chau: From our is a bridge between software and hardware that as programmed it to read only memory every 3D printers farmers different due to his purposes structure and the pre recorded must be reconfigured to our pocket 3D printer sign Henry Chau: disfarmer tells the printer everything and nice to know how to operate correctly and also interact with users input. Once complete this form is uploaded is embedded to the microcontroller in the right explains the successful investment and monetization, say, Thanks mate.
Henry Chau: This type are the same are some changes made to the firmer due to time I cannot explain all the changes made but here’s some examples of what the firmer looks like. Henry Chau: Versus the end South logic, the settings are important because this ensures that the printer does not exceed moving how side is print volume. This also helps set up the homie location meddling Henry Chau: How awkward is a stick the excesses, for example, once it hits the x axis name switch. This will trigger and will stop the motor from going any further. I’m using upon the face of check the logic script.
Henry Chau: Lastly, I’m committed that kinematic movements are changed since we’re using each body system where both motors are used to control X and Y simultaneously to control. We call this core x y firmer code is reproducible that both motors are moving in the correct direction. Henry Chau: This flowchart explains how a 3D printer operate once it once it starts running the first operation that printer has to do is have to print nozzle go to his home position by going to the XYZ and stops to they are hit Henry Chau: At the data itself. We have to print have moved to a sprint location data delivery system such as pumped into scooter starts to get prepared.
Henry Chau: First layer is getting uploaded and the it’s pretty by layer by layer once it’s finished three layers. This will stop the delivery system from scooting anymore makes Henry Chau: And will move back to this home decision and this will stop and just to give you a finished print and enough about code we’re moving on to something more visual Henry Chau: After several repetitions and prototypes. Here we have our initial prototype assemble based off the final design as much as possible. Henry Chau: As you can see In this article explains the prototype in action on the left hand explains the G code running that is sent to the shoulder first operation did was home and then it went to the center of the Henry Chau: Print that area.
The top left is easy reference to your host doing real time principal agent that is pretty acute the Z axis prototype is not yet added to the model to the time, but the stepper motor does respond to that and and stops and moves. Henry Chau: After testing and prototype. I went ahead and also apply this to the final components that will be added to our final 3D printer with arch stepper motors drivers and power supplies. Henry Chau: Here after reconfiguration to firmer based off the final design specifications is then reloaded Arduino Mega as we’re able to see this one was successful. Except Henry Chau: This finalize the portion and now I’ll be handing this over to skin to complete this presentation.
Kimberly Ventura: So here’s a breakdown of the cost spent for the mechanical and electrical team with the mechanical team spending the majority on the main gas refrain. Kimberly Ventura: And the electrical team spending the most on the motor and drive system combining the two we reach the grand total of 40 approximately 40 $400 keeping in mind, this does not include the extrusion system as well as the material needed to manufacture the parts for the pictures. Kimberly Ventura: So to summarize, while we were ready to build the printer. After receiving all of our components we were not able to do to the current situation.
Kimberly Ventura: However, we were able to finalize a gantry structure, but they cost efficient component selection. We were also able to complete a solid works model. Kimberly Ventura: That allowed us to analyze the emotion and loading and the electrical team was able to finalize their blocking wiring diagrams.
They’re also able to complete a prototype of the electrical system, which was integrated into the prototype being able to explaincase the drive system and code. Kimberly Ventura: Some of the future developments that we can expect to see after the continuation of this project is the construction of the full gantry system. Kimberly Ventura: With the electrical components integrated. We also expect to see the design of an extrusion system that will incorporate the concrete.
Make sure to begin test printing Kimberly Ventura: Lastly, I would like to acknowledge some of the people that have helped us complete our project over the year Kimberly Ventura: First, we would like to acknowledge the civil graduate students explainn who were very, very hard on the development of a concrete mixture for the 3D printer in the city research lab.
Kimberly Ventura: This project was a really unique in the aspect of how interdisciplinary. It was with mechanical and electrical undergraduate students working alongside these little graduate students. Kimberly Ventura: The students under the supervision of Dr bizzare were able to develop numerous pictures testing different drying rates and adhesive this explained here.
Kimberly Ventura: Prior to this closure of the school, they were able to complete Kimberly Ventura: The prints, you see on the screen. Kimberly Ventura: And lastly, we would like to give a special thank you to our advisor, Dr. Astrology for providing us the support and facility to complete our project, while we weren’t able to Kimberly Ventura: finalize the building.
We did progress, very, very far with this support and, secondly, we would like to thank Dr bizzare for collaborating with the UTC for underground transportation infrastructure. Kimberly Ventura: To acquire additional funding for the project. We would also like to thank the make maker space for providing us guidance guidance during the design process and Mr Michael Dre for providing us a secure area for the future team to bring our design to life. Kimberly Ventura: And with that, I would like to thank Tim 45 for all their hard work. And that concludes our presentation.
And now I would like to open up the floor for questions. Michael Thorburn: Okay, no thank you very much. Very interesting presentation and with 102 people in the room.
It’s been the most popular presentation of the Expo. So far, Michael Thorburn: I’d like to actually just ask one question. Could you talk a little bit about the sort of the coordination of the velocity of the gantry movement with the extrusion of the material with what sort of algorithms or Michael Thorburn: Control.
Did you have to happen. Henry Chau: We tend to use the motor. Initially it was time to use a motor the stepper motor by controlling the pulses vary. Henry Chau: By the hockey team. What they did was a they use RPM and that’s what I was trying to do as well.
Henry Chau: But also, they’re using G code to control how fast. Henry Chau: They want to Michael Thorburn: Let me rephrase the question. Just a little bit.
I would imagine that the rate that you’re putting the material down and the rate that the arm is moving has to be done in a very precise way for the Michael Thorburn: Yes form, is that correct Henry Chau: Yes, so Michael Thorburn: Any particular control algorithms. Michael Thorburn: That you know I Henry Chau: Mean, because my Henry Chau: The part of school for me was to have the X y&z motions correct, but all there was do research about it and Dell part paid in the future plan to integrate the Henry Chau: pump system and exclusion system for inside of firmware. Michael Thorburn: Okay, thank you. Um, other questions, there’s a big crown.
Just be sure and unmute your microphone before you ask the question. Chris Bachman: So I’ll ask the question, then Mike. So can you go back to your slide where you explain the full scale model of your system. Kimberly Ventura: Yes.
Chris Bachman: First off I’d like to say, I thought you guys love to see your little prototype at the end and all the CAD work you did. Chris Bachman: I was very impressed with with the fall with everything. The team did I just had a couple questions. So I noticed this seems like it.
Chris Bachman: Did you ever consider if this was rigid enough I worried that kind of if I pushed on your gantry kind of out of the end of the page. Chris Bachman: That the that the system might rock a little bit and I noticed in your prototype, you actually added another bar that went across from side to side. So I wonder if you ever thought about triangulating some of these components or adding a little bit more richness. Chris Bachman: To keep it from potentially kind of wobbling or deflecting Kimberly Ventura: Uh huh. So, um, Kimberly Ventura: So we did have that as a concern when we’re designing the structure, especially because it’s so tall.
Kimberly Ventura: But there was talk when we were doing your research that we would wait until we would actually assemble to see how it would stand and then potentially adding the extra on the on the floor to kind of fixate the country without it, Rocky. Ka Mun Lee: Also another thing. The nicest thing about choosing stage frames as our country system is that there are a lot of components, you can’t see.
It’s on the Ka Mun Lee: It’s at the feet of those trusses that you can attach more fixture and between them to make them a little more stable. There are also those faceplates steel base plates that are extremely heavy and very have those Ka Mun Lee: So the extra attachment would be there on an after maybe we touched the the movement. Arthur Maciel: Just sorry really quickly just to add on onto commons point.
We did look up at the bottom of the legs to have these triangular pieces that come out in in all directions to kind of support it without being able to rock as much. So that was one thing that we did to look into. Chris Bachman: No, I think it makes sense that you kind of see if you needed more support. And you could add more, you can always, you can always add add more material to make it stiffer and stiffer. Chris Bachman: One more question.
I’m also I’m really curious about the concrete that you use in these systems. Chris Bachman: You know how close is, is this like is this basically quick rate or is it like a pretty advanced formulation like an a pretty you know pretty like expensive mix to put put in this, like, how, how different is this stuff from quick read. Basically, it’s kind of my question. Kimberly Ventura: Um, I don’t believe we can answer that question.
Kimberly Ventura: But if any one of the civil graduate students. Mehran Mazari: To answer I can I jump in. Mohsen Eshraghi: Missouri is here.
So, Chris Bachman: Yeah, I can jump into to Mehran Mazari: To us to answer that question. Mehran Mazari: First of all, I would like to thank you and congratulate all the team members. This was really impressive. Mehran Mazari: But I was in some of the meetings with them and they worked really hard on this project and the results are just really impressive. So to answer that question.
Yes, this was the mix is far from quick rate. Mehran Mazari: And it’s actually Mehran Mazari: An engineered mix and we had to Mehran Mazari: We’re still working on it. But we have to change a lot of parameters in the mixing the concrete mix. So it’s not Mehran Mazari: Just aggregates cement and water.
We have to add chemical mixtures to to control the viscosity and a lot of Mehran Mazari: Other variables like dependability window the stability of the layers, the adhesion between the ears. All these are are under concrete side. Mehran Mazari: Of it and our graduate students have been working on this for several months.
And if they had initial plans to to combine the two teams efforts together at the end and Mehran Mazari: Work on the prototype. But, but, unfortunately, we couldn’t continue. But anyways, that gets that’s that’s a that’s an advanced engineered mix and and to address your first question, Chris Ducker Barkin sorry Mehran Mazari: Is that Mehran Mazari: We also Mehran Mazari: brought another civil engineers students to do the structural analysis of the trust to make sure that the we have stable structure and all the loads from the pump pressure and all the other movements are considered in in destruction analysis using this app software. Chris Bachman: Very cool. Very cool.
All right, thank you came. Yeah. Congratulations. Nice work. I look. I look forward to seeing Chris Bachman: Seeing more and more 3D printed concrete. Arthur Maciel: Thank you. Thank you.
Henry Chau: I see more concrete evidence A few Michael Thorburn: Questions. Austin Park: Yeah, I have one tissue. Austin Park: Question. Austin Park: A lot is why the operating speed in the XYZ mucho macho Austin Park: Operating Speedo average or maximum Henry Chau: Second, Austin Park: Those P. The in the XYZ mojo. Austin Park: Grades Austin Park: Or averages or maximum Arthur Maciel: So just to answer this really quickly.
We needed to actually build the structure. So we can time it but it’s definitely moving very slow, maybe only a few inches at a time because the concrete that is printed Arthur Maciel: needs time to cure before another layers printed on top of it. Arthur Maciel: So it has to make we were planning on with the code, making it do the outer layers and taking as long as it can to get back to the initial point before stacking onto itself because once you start printing onto onto itself. Arthur Maciel: Without it being properly cured. It starts expanding out to the sides and not holding and structure as well.
Arthur Maciel: So, Arthur Maciel: Not very fast at all. Arthur Maciel: To look for a short answer. Austin Park: Okay, so another question. Is my, my understanding is for the strength of a Mercurial for the for the structure or or some of you may be graduate students already checked. Right.
Austin Park: The strength of material for the auto across Austin Park: All your the track. Kimberly Ventura: Yes. Ka Mun Lee: Provided we checked it and also to manufacture it has also provided like Maximum Loads that one trust can handle. Oh, Ka Mun Lee: Yeah, if Kim. If you could go back to that.
Kimberly Ventura: One, it Arthur Maciel: Is Kim brings that up. We did also within the CAD modeling us solid works to test some load analysis within the structure Arthur Maciel: So even though we hadn’t fully designed the the z x the Z components yet to get onto the trust we estimated a load for it. Arthur Maciel: And went ahead and tested it using solid works as well. And thankfully the structure is very rigid and strong enough to withstand whatever modes. We were applying and we were even a Arthur Maciel: You know, giving it a little bit extra factor of safety by trying to assume, how much it would really way and then increasing it a little bit.
Austin Park: Okay. Congratulations. Kimberly Ventura: Thank you. Ka Mun Lee: Thank you. Michael Thorburn: I think we have time for one short question if there isn’t one more short question. Okay. Go ahead.
Nurullah Arslan: first of all congratulate the team, the nice study actually, you did a lot of things, especially in this specific time that’s difficult to offer experimental actually tough question variable to make your kind of small building structure with the system. Kimberly Ventura: We had began constructing Kimberly Ventura: The Kimberly Ventura: We had constructed one side of the truss after we receive the component, but that was a very close to the time when this will close so we weren’t able Kimberly Ventura: To completely add on the full Kimberly Ventura: Length Nurullah Arslan: Okay, thank you. Michael Thorburn: Okay, by me. I just something I just wanted to Mohsen Eshraghi: Thank the team again. Have you know they did a great job.
Even if you know this thing happened at home. They’ve been working on this thing. Mohsen Eshraghi: Since the beginning. They’ve been very active and this is you are one of the best things that I’ve had the unit years.
So I just wanted to congratulate you and your great job and I wanted to thank Dr. Missouri and UTC and city center for sponsoring us as well and Mohsen Eshraghi: I just wanted to let the rest of you know that a couple of these student actually plan to continue working on this project as graduate students do Mohsen Eshraghi: And so they’re very motivated and and excited about this and they plan to continue working on it hopefully after school opens again thank you all again congratulations. Arthur Maciel: Thank you. Thank You okay Michael Thorburn: Great job.
Michael Thorburn: Alright our next presentation is a Boeing sponsored presentation feel review section system is the Boeing team here. Michael Thorburn: Students Jose Arceo: Yes, I’m here. Michael Thorburn: So, Michael Thorburn: The charts, you can Michael Thorburn: Take control of the screen. Michael Thorburn: share your screen.
Jose Arceo: I’m here. Albert Ramirez: Yes, I’m here. I will put up the PowerPoint. Michael Thorburn: At the bottom it says share screen if you Just a second. Michael Thorburn: While the team is pulling up their slides.
Let me remind everybody, if a couple things. First off, thanks for being here. This is Expo. Michael Thorburn: Cal State LA is first virtual Expo.
Michael Thorburn: We’ve also got a call tricks survey for every one of the teams were looking for feedback from the audience I certain I posted the link to that in the in the chat room. And if you can’t find it, to send me a note, I’ll send you another copy of the link Michael Thorburn: I appreciate your feedback. The students appreciate your feedback. Michael Thorburn: Without any further delay than Michael Thorburn: Let me Michael Thorburn: hand this over to the field view detection system team. Brent: Missing one person, Randy, are you in here.
Albert Ramirez: He’s last so Albert Ramirez: We could, we could wait or start without them. Michael Thorburn: I see Randy. Michael Thorburn: In the room. He’s muted. Brandi him. Yeah. Jose Arceo: So, Brent: We can begin. Michael Thorburn: Oh, looks like maybe he dropped off, but he’ll Michael Thorburn: He’ll come back. Yeah, go ahead. Brent: Let’s begin. Yes.
Brent: Good evening, everyone. My name is Brent condo. Anthony Tran: I’m Anthony Tran. Albert Ramirez: Albert Thomas Jose Arceo: My name is cool say our sale.
RandyM: Randy Mineola Brent: We are the field of view detection system sponsored by Boeing. Excellent. Brent: So the agenda for , the background and the objective will be covered by myself, then we will go into the system overview, which will be covered by Anthony and Albert from there we’ll, we’ll discuss the mechanical and electrical results. Brent: Those will be discussed by Jose and Randy and then Randy will finish off in the conclusion.
And then at the end of the presentation will open up for questions. Brent: Next slide. Background. Excellent. Brent: So satellite missions involve navigation to not telecommunication orbiting distance planets or stars and in order to receive and collect data.
Brent: They need in order to have a successful mission. These components that are used to navigate and telling me, telling me indicate require a minimum field of view shortened as FOB for a satellite in order for it to be fully operational and failure free that FOB needs to be clear for Brent: 15 years currently at Boeing center 90% of all the sensors F of these are checked with respect to the thermal Lincoln’s during the building phase to ensure maximum efficiency. Brent: The figure to the right. Figure one explains a Boeing satellite with a thermal blankets. Those are the black sheets around the satellite and the blue coat the blue cone is representation of the fob of that sensor.
Next week, Brent: So our objective. Next, like Brent: The team’s objective was to develop an independent system that would remotely detect obstructions within the fob of sensors on more satellites Brent: Some of the primary tasks that we accomplish. Are we that we work towards this year included designing and fabricating and prototype system.
Brent: developing software that communicates with the sensor and can be used to verify the fob against a computer aided design model, specifically in Korea. And then from there, we also designed a test bed for testing hardware and the software. Excellent. Brent: So system overview.
I’m going to let Anthony continue on with this. Anthony Tran: So what the system overview. Our final components of it will be explainn here. Next week’s. So first one is our TF mini lighter, which measures a distance use to determine a depth of field next Anthony Tran: And then we have our to several digital high tech server motors, which are able to you move the LiDAR and the desert fob.
Next, please. Anthony Tran: And we have our peace, Doc, which is able to control at the sensor and collect data next Anthony Tran: And lastly, we have our rabbit Raspberry Pi, which is a compact computer enabled to write to beta next Anthony Tran: So in order to detect those obstructions our system needed to be based upon a mathematical model which is explainn on figure three which is a symbolic representation Anthony Tran: And that includes every blue and prismatic joints. So by using the lighter and server. The system collects the data measurements. Anthony Tran: Produced and transforms those data measurements using manipulate kinematics or a chip which they can then be model into XYZ coordinates relative to the local origin of that system.
Nice. Anthony Tran: And as a result, this produces a results in vector arrow real highlighted in green. So by collecting a set of data points obstructions can be detected. Next, please.
Anthony Tran: So how do we take this information from that symbolic representation. So this is represented by are some some block diagram explaining on the rights using the key components to interact with each other. Anthony Tran: So the lighter and the digital server motors communicate using the P sock to make requests and after those requests are received is enter in through through the Raspberry Pi Anthony Tran: As a PDF file and that could see us file can be retrieved using a USB and then it can be transferred to create software expertise. Anthony Tran: So looking at figure five.
This is our concept design of the graphic graphical user interface. And this allows the user to input information such as a saved directory FOB angle and configuration files and it also use for data body as well as please Anthony Tran: So for our system requirements that you see here. Our final model complies with majority of the requirements, except orientation. Anthony Tran: Most of these requirements were verified through design, while others were verified through analysis and testing.
Anthony Tran: The only opponent was the orientation which did not comply due to time constraints. However, a concept was in process of development as a separate system. Anthony Tran: And for the tolerance and detection size in order to meet those requirements it precision of plus or minus one degree and with a minimum of one inch was required. And this was done through you choosing our components next Anthony Tran: So these are the mechanical goal components which are our digital server motor and your train so we pick the high tech Anthony Tran: 625 and w as had the capability of sending six times than not a pulses, along with a travel rate of point 08 degrees and that cleanser eight degrees a lot for a smaller range of motion and providing additional FOB Anthony Tran: Angle readings and next with the combination of the year train is used to translate the f&b angle.
Anthony Tran: With the digital server server modes, being a tighter range and we used a your train of three to one ratio. And this was viable, as it also was good to replace the bankruptcy and precision of the system itself and next I will introduce Albert, who will be covering the electrical side. Albert Ramirez: So, Albert Ramirez: The microcontroller is the piece which is the programmable system on chip. I can see a picture of it and figure seven Albert Ramirez: The mic.
The piece was essentially the the center of the system, which you know there’s a you have Albert Ramirez: One side where it’s a you have user inputs and parameters that are being set and then you have the and those are sent to the p socks, so that it can tell all the other sensors to do Albert Ramirez: To do as such. So if the Raspberry Pi nice to have the motor move then it has to go through the P sock and the piece configured. Albert Ramirez: The LIDAR into a trigger command it sets the initial positions for the LiDAR by moving the motors, it could like the data from the LiDAR and it sends all collected data to the Raspberry Pi Albert Ramirez: The LIDAR itself is just a beam of light sent out from a sensor and the sensor itself times how long that piece of data that light get takes to return and that Jesus that time to calculate the distance internally.
Albert Ramirez: The type of communication use between the LiDAR and and the P sock is you art and you are sense for universal a synchronous receiver transmitter. It’s a type of serial communication use to communicate from one device to another. Albert Ramirez: P WM is a pulse width modulation.
It’s used to move the server motors based on the size of the load of the wave Albert Ramirez: A figure 10 explains how the waves go up and down and depending on the size of that wave at one point dictates whether it’s going to move a lot or it’s going to move a little Albert Ramirez: The LiDAR data sheet instructions were used to learn the light our behavior to into commands. Albert Ramirez: If the lighter set is responding to a command the lighter will send back zero x four to figure 11 explains the process of how Albert Ramirez: If the P suck receives a zero x for to then and then it received zero x five, seven, and that means that it’s sending appropriate commands. Albert Ramirez: And then it will collect all the, the remaining data coming in and once the appropriate length has instructed by the data sheet has been met, it will it will then reset and cut and put that data in an appropriate place. Albert Ramirez: The Albert Ramirez: The Raspberry Pi’s main tasks are user input converting raw data and writing and writing PTS files. Albert Ramirez: When we start on figure 12 is looking at your 12 we start at the user input a configuration file is input by the user, the file gets parsed and parsed information is sent to the to the configuration class.
Albert Ramirez: The configuration class changes default settings in the logging and kinematics class. Some examples would be linked parameters tolerance or file type Albert Ramirez: If you go back to the user input and and FOB angle is also input it which is sent to the microcontroller via you are to start the microcontroller tasks. Albert Ramirez: The data being sent from the Microsoft microcontroller to the Raspberry Pi is directed to the logging class to be stored as raw data, the raw data is that is sent to the kinematic medics class to convert the data which is sent back to the login class to write to the PTS for Albert Ramirez: Computer Vision a standalone class, which was developed for orientation estimation Albert Ramirez: But due to time constraints.
So we weren’t able to finish it. Albert Ramirez: Next, we’ll be talking about a results and to talk about the mechanical results will be holding Jose Arceo: This next slide. Jose Arceo: This static simulation analysis explainn in figure to 13 and carried out to find possible factors which could affect the field of view detection system.
Jose Arceo: One factor which could affect the final design of the field of view section system is mechanical deflection Jose Arceo: The part which has the latter sensor attached can be seen deflecting although it is a small deflection. It cannot be neglected without first knowing what it is. Additionally, the error in the field of view angle can propagate nearly with the distance away from the LiDAR.
Next slide. Jose Arceo: Another test. Jose Arceo: Which was performed hat forces apply to the system to see if it will break the data was gathered using an accelerometer and then you think the mass of the system.
It was Jose Arceo: Transformed into inertial forces inertial each inertial force is set to act on the center of gravity on this stuff, the system is going to be explainn in Figure 14 and it is acting in one direction. Next slide. Jose Arceo: So then, a series of tests were carried out to see if the system would break Jose Arceo: So it’s the maximum bonuses stresses actually on the system.
Do not exceed the youth strength of the final designs material, then that is considered as passing the test and all of the components in the in our system pass the tests. Okay. Next slide. Jose Arceo: The test bit explainn in Figure 15 was assigned to create a controlled environment to test the final design all components were designed to be 3D printed for a quick changes and accessibility a foam board was purchased to be a backdrop to reduce background noise and a sanity check. Jose Arceo: The testbed has three main components explainn in Figure 16 to test structure, which was designed with simple geometry.
Jose Arceo: For a baseline the wing, which was assigned to add complexity in the form of angles and the real which was designed to reduce measurements and ensure the system was in the correct location. Next slide. Jose Arceo: And with that, I will pass it on to Randy, who will talk about the electrical results.
RandyM: Outside RandyM: Communication was an important task to achieve between the lighter piece of work in a Raspberry Pi communication between Pisa Pisa can later was achieved and verified using real term software. RandyM: The class and Python was developed to allow for logging on the Raspberry Pi class receive data from the piece of work and will say to a text file and an older format that’s will also receive converted data from kinematics class and saving to PTS file. RandyM: Next slide please.
RandyM: Using an Arduino data with simulated and transmitted to the Raspberry Pi and verified that the Raspberry Pi received the data in logs correctly explainn in Figure 18 RandyM: Next slide please. RandyM: Early computer vision testing was done the concept explainn in Figure 20 explains how computer vision and markers allow for transformation between local and global frame or reference frame frame, assuming the relationship between the markers and global frame or note. RandyM: The setup. You’ve tested because of its angles and various depths a Raspberry Pi camera was used to take the Photos explainn in Figure 21 RandyM: The test bed was placed about two meters away and use our Yuko markers, which can be seen in Figure 19 for every test only two thirds of the markers were detected it was determined that the angle of the left wing may have been too steep and the settings. Use the needed to be adjusted.
RandyM: Next slide please. RandyM: Do to the team being multidisciplinary, the team develop new strategies to progress the project. The final design has been 3D printing, along with the tested both the software devices piece org and Raspberry Pi are ready for testing. RandyM: Next slide please. RandyM: Any questions.
Michael Thorburn: Okay, thank you. Team. That’s good, good presentation. Very interesting. Michael Thorburn: We have, we have ample time for questions. Michael Thorburn: Who wants to go first. Be sure to unmute your microphone.
Papa K: I have a question, let’s cross Lena, so, um, how did you guys approach characterizing your comp system, the Raspberry Pi, the LiDAR. Did you do any, like, a friend, you know, kind of parametric testing or characterization testing before jumping in to try to program it for your particular project. Albert Ramirez: I’ll take that. Albert Ramirez: Yes.
A initially we we tried to do a test with the Raspberry Pi, and the piece. Albert Ramirez: Just to see if you know more of a compatibility, see if they are able to send one to another. So we start off with sending just like Albert Ramirez: Practice data just like I’m going to send you this. And then I’m going to send you this, you know, and we we did some testing like that a first and from there we just started a starting with flow charts and diagrams, just to get everything together before we started coding Papa K: Okay, good.
And did you experience any any, you know, real explain sort of explain stopping difficulties with decoding part or was it just a matter of kind of becoming familiar with the coding language and, you know, putting it in the right in the right format and sequence. Albert Ramirez: And was a combination of getting used to. Albert Ramirez: Not just coding but also dealing with like a Albert Ramirez: With.
With. Albert Ramirez: When is it a tools that come in, into a certain type of microcontrollers. Albert Ramirez: Yeah, there’s one had I believe it’s called an ID.
Albert Ramirez: Which allows you to move tools around and so that Albert Ramirez: When you’re, you get to name certain components based on pictures more than like actually just assigning variables as we’re usually used to. So that was a good Albert Ramirez: I guess a good new experience to go through at least for myself. Brent: Our. Do you want to mention to the concerns with the state diagram that you’ve had early on.
Albert Ramirez: Yes. Albert Ramirez: There a Albert Ramirez: With the state diagram. We weren’t sure because at first, like we’re just reading to see how it works.
And we only thought that we were only be receiving distances and after reading and reading and reading of Albert Ramirez: Just a different data packets that come on the data sheet we ended up finding out that we have to command by command program ourselves the Albert Ramirez: The light are in order to do it. What we’d like it to do you and if you didn’t program it the right way that and send the appropriate command, it would just continuously do be like a Albert Ramirez: You know, a barrage of just distance. Distance distance. Distance until you we ended up finding a way to trigger it. So what we did is find a trigger command and Albert Ramirez: At first, we were just sending commands without realizing that we’d have to verify them first to see if it’s actually receiving them.
So we just kept learning and learning and learning on how to use this device. Papa K: Yeah, I guess nothing comes for free, right. Right.
Papa K: I do one kind of a kind of off off table question is did you guys develop any kind of process or procedure. Papa K: For like handling your hardware. I mean, I know that you know you didn’t, you know, these, these modules were purchased right the Papa K: Raspberry Pi, and the controllers and the LiDAR and and such.
But did you did you handle them in any special way like you know for ESP or for chalk or mechanical shark or anything like that. Now the gavel kind of a Papa K: You know configuration or what they just kind of handle and then around two people kind of take a look at Brent: We did not PRACTICE YESTERDAY. Brent: It’s one of those things on I’ve, I have like nine different Raspberry Pi’s Brent: And it’s probably a bad things, and especially since I’m not a double E, but Brent: I don’t practice the SD with my Raspberry Pi’s or my Arduino and it’s probably been luck. Brent: Of the girl I know Albert’s done a little more caution with grounding his Brent: His pee sock and everything.
Brent: But for for the Raspberry Pi side completely. We didn’t practice yesterday. Okay.
Papa K: Yeah, I just just curious about that it seems there’s a Papa K: Sort of a Papa K: Yeah, perhaps one of the areas that some other students can look at to see what kind of protocols and procedures might be used for Papa K: Some of this hardware. I know it’s pretty robust and it’s it’s it’s designed and built, not to break but it would be good to learn some of that stuff. Good job, guys. Good, good project here. Thank you, Keith.
Cam Massey, Boeing: I if I made this is a cam Massey from Boeing, one of the Cam Massey, Boeing: One of the team members on Boeing side and I just wanted to comment that that I thought that this team this year that the team had Cam Massey, Boeing: Pretty ambitious goals and leveraging that they were able to, I think, come up with a very good architecture and perform some very valuable concept validation. We’re very happy about it and are certainly will be hoping for a chance to push this Cam Massey, Boeing: This project forward next year. Michael Thorburn: Well, that’s very good, dear, I will be talking maybe next Michael Thorburn: Other questions. Michael Thorburn: Okay.
Michael Thorburn: Well, if not Michael Thorburn: What, what do you guys think is the next big steps that you’ve got to take Michael Thorburn: In the implementation of Brent: Our biggest, what would be the biggest next step for the project would most likely be integration testing right now we have single variable standalone testing. Brent: And due to the lockdown. We are at the point, right, when we are about to start LIDAR testing and characterizing the LiDAR for things like the beam with Brent: The air behind and all that stuff.
So a lot of the stuff we left for next is a lot of verification and testing, I believe. Michael Thorburn: Lessons Michael Thorburn: Okay, well thanks very much team. It was a very interesting presentation good project. Michael Thorburn: A nice Michael Thorburn: A nice set of Michael Thorburn: Sort of intermediate deliverables.
I’m Michael Thorburn: Very happy with what you accomplished. Brent: Okay, thank you. Anthony Tran: Thank you. Michael Thorburn: Okay, our next presentation is scheduled to start at 320 so we’ve got a Michael Thorburn: Proximity 15 months before it starts.
This will be a CubeSat solar sail project. So I encourage you, everybody to stick around. Michael Thorburn: I don’t want to start it early, because I, you know, you never know when somebody might be planning on reading this very project.
So we’ll try to stay to schedule. Michael Thorburn: But that means that we’ll have a short break about about a 10 minute break. As we get ready. I do want to ask a favor.
I’m about to turn off the recording. Michael Thorburn: If I’m if I forget to turn it back on. Please remind me if Michael Thorburn: Somebody can send me a note in the group chat. There’s been twice fun.
I forgot to turn it back on. And it’s kind of embarrassing later. Okay, so we’ll anyway we’ll stand Michael Thorburn: Okay, welcome back. Michael Thorburn: This is Expo 2020 Cal State LA is first virtual Expo. Michael Thorburn: We’re about halfway through our session this morning, or this afternoon.
Michael Thorburn: The next presentation is going to be from the cube shot solar sail team. Michael Thorburn: Will get started in just a minute. Michael Thorburn: Okay. Michael Thorburn: Welcome back.
It’s about time to start. So is the solar sail team ready Adrian Morales: YeahWe’re all here. Michael Thorburn: Okay, well, Michael Thorburn: The stage is yours.
Arianna Fatahi: So good afternoon everyone. We are the CubeSat solar sail deployment system team. Team number 10. My name is eliana photography my teammates are joining us Sanchez brown and brown belt.
The least middle Ahmed, thus far, and Adrian rollers and will be presenting our final design review. Arianna Fatahi: So first and foremost, we’d like to thank our advisor Carl silliness, our sponsor Professor Thorburn as well as the Eagle Rock Richie club CubeSat organization and Dr Neely for all the guidance and support that you’ve provided this past year. Arianna Fatahi: Our agenda will be divided into six sections. I’ll first be going over the introduction and the product overview and then pass it on to my teammates join and Brandon will be discussing the structures materials and mechanisms of our CubeSat Arianna Fatahi: Then Lewis and Ahmed will go over the payloads of our system as well as the data handling. And lastly, Adrian will conclude our presentation with the power distribution and some final remarks.
Arianna Fatahi: So first, I like to go over some background information about cube sets. Arianna Fatahi: The CubeSat is a miniature satellite and as explainn here in the image. They are essentially boxes with fixed dimensions and its components or its payload.
Arianna Fatahi: Are chosen based on its mission and the standard unit or you is a cube with side links of 10 centimeters and a mass of 1.3 kilograms. Arianna Fatahi: And because of their modular structure. These one you keeps asking for larger configurations, such as it to you through you and so forth. Arianna Fatahi: Also these capabilities of the cube sats are similar to that of traditional satellites and in combination with their lower production time and cost cubes has become a popular alternative for space exploration Arianna Fatahi: Currently there is a variety of propulsion technologies that are available for cube sats and one of these is solar cell technology. Arianna Fatahi: And the advantage of this type of proportion is that it uses the sun as an infinite power source, making the CubeSat capable of long range missions.
Arianna Fatahi: And in our project. This was the propulsion method that we went with. And so when sunlight strikes the surface of our sales momentum would be transferred to them.
Arianna Fatahi: Enabling our cube sets move throughout space at constant acceleration and as explainn here in the animation, the sales are supported and deployed by structures called boots. Arianna Fatahi: Our project had three main objectives. The first objective was to design a three you keeps up that adheres to the CubeSat design specifications and utilizes solar cell technology. Arianna Fatahi: But more specifically, we were tasked with designing and constructing a deployment mechanism equipped to deploy to solar cells. Arianna Fatahi: Such that our deployment mechanism and before that sales should fit within two units of space within the CubeSat and the remaining one you was reserved for an artist demo set, which was provided by our customer Arianna Fatahi: And using this already set images or article of our solar sail deployment must be captured with an onboard camera or article camera and transmitted to a grass issue for viewing a one mile range.
Arianna Fatahi: Are CubeSat had to satisfy two sets of requirements, one being the design specifications for through you and the other set was derived from our customer Arianna Fatahi: And as explainn here in both tables all requirements were satisfied with the exception of one which was establishing the communication range of at least 1600 meters. Arianna Fatahi: And due to the recent pandemic. The team was only able to arrange test our communication system in the hallway of the engineering building which was estimated to be around 40 meters. Arianna Fatahi: And additionally, we were not able to manufacture, some of our components. So only an estimated total weight was obtained Arianna Fatahi: So in our project we focus on five main systems.
The first system is the CubeSat frame or structure which will be discussed early by Joanna. Arianna Fatahi: But second, is the payload, which is comprised of the solar sails the solar sail deployment mechanism and the camera. Arianna Fatahi: These three systems were designed to fit within two units of space, as indicated here in blue.
Arianna Fatahi: The last three systems include the communications, the data acquisition and the power supply, which is highlighted in green to Arianna Fatahi: To demonstrate that all three of these systems are contained by one component which is the artist set and this will take up the remaining one you have space inside the cube set Arianna Fatahi: As with any as with any spacecraft. It was critical for each system and its components to be both compact and lightweight Arianna Fatahi: And by using origami principles are solar sails can be folded compact late to fit inside the CubeSat during the launch, but still exhibit a large surface area once deployed in space and details of the solar sail folding will be discussed later by my partner Louise Arianna Fatahi: So now I’d like to pass it on to my partner Joanna to discuss the design of our CubeSat frame. Johanna Sanchez: And Karina when the signing the frame.
The team had to follow keeps us strong specification without a structured dimensions of 10 by 10 by 30 centimeters. Johanna Sanchez: Or rows and access ports to access enter components along with you seen space certified the window material. We also have to ensure that the frame can withstand vibration and exterior forces to protect enter components.
With that said, Johanna Sanchez: Or design which says specifications to over access ports will open as they are the deployment window for the solar cells and booms roles are located and enter for stability. The team decided to use aluminum. Johanna Sanchez: For the structure because of its high strength and cost efficiency that thicknesses were decided to reduce the weight of the frame but still managed to be resilience Johanna Sanchez: One of our requirements came from the ego walk at your club and keeps our organization. Johanna Sanchez: Or in the distant future, the cube side has to be deployed out or the rocketry his vehicle at a height of 30,000 feet with the force of 32.4 Newton’s Johanna Sanchez: A finite element analysis was done to ensure that the frame when our experience with a sensible stress dresses during deployment results dresses are below the strength of the material assuring the safe deployments.
Johanna Sanchez: Here’s a schematic view over CubeSat because of the second stream or electrical components are located in the bottom for power and communication. Johanna Sanchez: And top for sensors are mechanical components are in the middle, being our drum and mortar a critical thing material material was used to prototype or structure, but do took over 19 the team was unable to finalize the structure using aluminum 6061 Johanna Sanchez: Now I’ll be going over the deployment mechanism. Johanna Sanchez: An important component of our deployment system is the drum where the carbon fibers will be wrapped around to deploy the solar cells with the help of a circle mortar.
Johanna Sanchez: Or the plan mechanism consists of solar so housings to store the sales the drum has adapters and top that’s attached to prevent the booms from a windy and vertically Johanna Sanchez: The rollers will help guide out the booms and drum as the drum rotates with the motor. There are ports on the plates to allow wires to pass through and prevent an interference with the system. Johanna Sanchez: A leaf and the laser cutter machine were used to manufacture the deployment mechanism. Again, you took over 19 we were unable to use the proper materials to manufacturer parts, except for the drum Johanna Sanchez: Now my teammate Brendan will be going over it. The deployable boom.
Brandon Brownell: Extra water cooler permits for the success of the deployed booms were determined based off of our previous senior design projects. Brandon Brownell: The combined length are for booms was to be between a meter and two meters and deployed length. Brandon Brownell: Were a volume for the deployment assembly. Our for blooms was limited to approximately 0.001 meters cube and out a way of approximately one kilogram.
Brandon Brownell: The weight of all four booms combine those two not exceed 0.15 kilograms to ensure that the weight could be evenly distributed to the rest of the assembly, such as the drum motor the solar sails and their stores housing as Joanna had discussed earlier. Brandon Brownell: And then finally the material selected how to utilize a lower get coefficient of thermal expansion had a higher specific strength value and had to have by stability than the previous material use, which was a rolled steel spring tape found in everyday measuring tapes. Brandon Brownell: So the final material that we end up selecting and use for the construction of our booms was a carbon fiber resin laminate Brandon Brownell: A plus minus 45 woven by axial carbon fiber cloth was infused with an a resin matrix, the material in the middle was an alternative for next year’s project, which is used to increase strength when the deployed link was to exceed two meters and of Boeing began to take an effect. Brandon Brownell: So, due to budget and time constraints, the mold had to be inexpensive and have the ability to produce a working prototype to receive adequate results. Brandon Brownell: To mold.
Our booms to the desired shape that we had selected to standard PVC pipes for us where the final shape would be a crescent perfect semi circular shape. Brandon Brownell: The larger pipe had an inner diameter 0.75 inches, where the smaller pipe had an outer diameter of 0.75 inches, our fabric would then be sandwiched in between these two types of pipes to form our final part Brandon Brownell: So the fabric that was laid into a cut half of the pipe where the direction of the fibers laid plus minus 45 degrees in the longitudinal direction. The layup consisted of two layers as explainn and was hand impregnated at 60% fabric 40% resin ratio.
Brandon Brownell: Once the material was handmade into the mold the other solid PVC pipe was laid onto the cut half and and tightened down with an impact on Brandon Brownell: The impact gun was used to mimic the effect the part would experience as if it were under a vacuum. The part was then let cure for 24 hours at room temperature. Brandon Brownell: The final part resulted in booms that weighed an average of 21.25 grams, each with roughly total. So approximately 0.085 kilograms.
Brandon Brownell: The final cured part. Measure the length of 1.14 meters and successfully reached and laminate that had all features of by stability. Brandon Brownell: However, due to the health craze that we are currently experiencing we were unable to test the booms.
Brandon Brownell: For their strength and ultimate tensile strength to confirm whether this lady was strong enough, our project. So now I’d like to hand it over to my teammate Louise and I will speak on the solar sail portion of our project. Luis Medel: Thank you, Brandon. Luis Medel: For going off what area, area and I had discuss continuously generated acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass for giving us force solar cells are required to be lightweight while still maintaining rigidity. Luis Medel: Therefore, quantitative core requirements had to be met for the solar cell on the east subsection of material folding and propulsion.
Luis Medel: Hi reflective coating was desired the hired that affect decoding the more times you will have Boston off the cell and transferring their energy for proportion of the coefficient of thermal expansion was required. Luis Medel: This is a solar cells will be hit with radiation heat the CTE has to be smart to minimize exposure on the material. There’s no creasing Katie was desired Luis Medel: As a Christian carrier increases the efficiency of the solar cell membrane minimises. This is why we want a minimum crease indicator Luis Medel: There has to be no focal point. Luis Medel: Any convergence point will cause the solar cell to tear out the focal point, due to the concentrating stresses and strains from the bones and connections to the storage house.
Luis Medel: There has to be a large surface area and while maintaining a small storage area, a small storage area. Luis Medel: Is necessary to give an abundant working space to the rest of the Harvard, such as wiring motor motor housing and camera. Luis Medel: With higher reflective coating.
We can get better proportion for the spacecraft, while the photon energy being transparent project estrus Luis Medel: Without large surface or however the amount of reflectivity will be downsized is a momentum carried by single photon is extremely small. That being said, the surface area of a cell must be large to produce an acceleration Luis Medel: Our final design configurations for the source material for things are eliminated miler were reflectivity oh 0.9 to the false or z and before and the thickness was chosen at Joe micrometres the crease indicator for D AMP z for our zero point 22 and zero point 37 Luis Medel: The storage area is 68 point 43 centimeter square one comparison, the deploy Sephora zero is 0.6 times 10 to the third. Luis Medel: A graphical validation of our decision to move on with our child micrometres is seen in the figure. Luis Medel: Through incredible calculation. So, acceleration was found to the materials density volume and mass calculator from thicknesses.
Luis Medel: And forces from full time pressure actually on the solar cell for you, given dimensions. Luis Medel: As thickness increases for the solar cell and will require more visibility reflectivity of the solar cell to get higher acceleration to move the system. Luis Medel: This can be seen as the thickness is moved from Joe micrometres to 30 micrometres Joe migrated meats and optimal acceleration to move the system for our mission and capabilities.
Luis Medel: From analysis, the following conclusions were made the lighter. The master this energy is quite Luis Medel: Hard to learn and master much variation you get for the system, the right investor this over a lifetime you will receive this is vice versa for heavier masses. Luis Medel: So there’s those are not limited by reaction mass and provide continuous acceleration reduce all the by the lifeline of the lightweight film in the space environment.
And this is from the sudden now I will be heading off to our met to discuss our deployment camera. On Ahmed Basfar: And movies. So one of the main requirements of the project is to capture the deployment of the solar cells using an onboard camera. Ahmed Basfar: So my team and I have been selected the two megapixel camera module, we have chosen this specific camera for it’s a high resolution lightweight and most importantly it’s it’s Arduino compatibility, the module lot takes in 2.7 volts to operate and can now produce a Ahmed Basfar: 10 frames per second article output at it resolution as high as 10 ATP, the modular uses Ahmed Basfar: I squared C interface for sensor configuration and SPI for camera camera commands and data stream. Ahmed Basfar: And since we we have to capture a solar cells that are around two meters wide.
We had to replace the original lens that came standard with the camera in order to Ahmed Basfar: In order to cover and capturing the whole surface area of the solar cells using a wild. Ahmed Basfar: Using a wild filled with us on the on the field of view is also called the angle view on which is the shooting range that can be viewed by the lens and this usually represented in degrees. Ahmed Basfar: Since solar cells are not directly in front of the lens lens selection has to be done, practically, therefore, the team had bought a Ahmed Basfar: Therefore, the team had bought a set of lenses varying from 10 degrees, all the way to 200 degrees and tested five of them individually and we came to the conclusion that our best options are the 140 degrees and and 160 degrees.
As you can see in the picture. Ahmed Basfar: But we’re leaning towards 140 degrees for. It’s a lot distortion from the size Ahmed Basfar: This lens has a one for a degree or its own to field of view and 185 degrees. They have no view which is ideal for our situation.
Ahmed Basfar: And now I’m going to talk about data handling and transmission Ahmed Basfar: This flow diagram illustrates the past for both data and power of throughout the system. However, I’m going to walk you through the later part of it as my team member agent will Ahmed Basfar: Cover the power part our microcontroller. Oh, all which is the which is the brain of our system isn’t isn’t Arduino derivative. There’s called the seed. We know it uses Ahmed Basfar: Arduino is hardware but provide different features.
It has four is Chris I squared C connectors to which are mounted on the externship Ahmed Basfar: The microcontroller will send commands and process data to the side components such as the camera and the spaceport. Ahmed Basfar: The spaceport is compaction support without dropping the length of just for two millimeters. It has a collection of nine sensors that can gather 20 different values such as he pressured Ahmed Basfar: Altitude magnitude orientation and sensitivity to light.
These values are going to his values are going to be use useful in case we launch into space. Ahmed Basfar: Then the several motor is going to receive a pw and mass signal from the seed. We know that control the speed and the rotation of the motor, as well as the duration of all creation. Ahmed Basfar: And then we have the comp system so outcomes outcomes system is x be transceiver modules which outlaw frequency band or four 2.4 gigahertz, and then outdoor range for 1200 meters.
So after the Ahmed Basfar: So after the camera and the support of finished capturing the data, the data will be transmitted through the system to the ground station and also saved on an onboard is the card as as a reference. Ahmed Basfar: And now I’m going to be passing it down to my team member Adrian and he’s going to talk about power management and distribution. Adrian Morales: Thank you. Good afternoon everyone source systems power begins at the battery pack the battery pack consists of 318 650 batteries at 3.7 volts, with an approximate capacity of 24 and a half.
read. Adrian Morales: Our battery feeds power to our systems power manager this power manager behaves as a step of converter for voltage converting a 3.7 volts input to a five volt output. Adrian Morales: The power manager also offers a myriad of safety features for CubeSat including protections from overcharging to reverse current to short circuiting Adrian Morales: Powers then fed from our power management to our see doing a microcontroller and from the sea duty, you know, to our CubeSat sensors and payload elements.
Adrian Morales: This is our systems powers distributed. I will now be going into the into the systems power consumption. Adrian Morales: We understood that at 360 degree continuous server motor would be the most appropriate motor for deployment mechanism because of the high intermittent torque and its ability to precisely control velocity Adrian Morales: However, an exact model of the server was not decided upon, because of covert 19 Additionally we understood the necessity for the sales to be deployed at a slower rate. Adrian Morales: Through preliminary calculations, we were able to determine that the deployment length of three minutes would ensure that the sales are deployed uniformly and are not at risk of tearing Adrian Morales: Here’s a brief overview of our mission timeline.
We concluded that the mission would take 30 minutes which allows us enough time to conduct a system health check, ensuring that all components are functioning properly. Adrian Morales: Based on this timeline. Here’s the calculated power consumption of the system. Adrian Morales: We can see that at times zero our system is often at maximum power after our system engages, we see that the power begins to be drawn from the onboard systems.
Adrian Morales: At two minutes a signal will be sent from the sea. Do we know to the camera to begin recording at this point. Our system is activated. Our onboard sensors will begin collecting data or unit will be storing data locally and begin transmitting to a girl and receiver.
Adrian Morales: At the five minute mark a signal will be sent to actually the motor commencing the solar sail deployment. Adrian Morales: For calculation purposes, our motor will draw power for three minutes until the motor stores drawing excessive current this overdraw of current will be used as a deactivation signal. Adrian Morales: For our motor to turn it off. Here we see that the total power consumed for our mission was less than one watt, leaving us ample reserve power for additional missions.
In conclusion, in conclusion, Adrian Morales: Our primary mission objectives were to design a to you deployment system which we were able to accomplish. Adrian Morales: However, due to coven 19 are two other objectives, including visually capturing the deployment process and establishing communication with the ground station at a range of a mile still need further work. Adrian Morales: For next year senior design team.
We have put together an action item list. This includes manufacturing of the aluminum frame. Adrian Morales: Selecting a final motor and data transmission at a range of one while we thank you for your kind attention. And this concludes our presentation.
Are there any questions. Michael Thorburn: Thank you team. Are there any questions you have time for question.
Michael Thorburn: We’d like to first Michael Thorburn: You should know Papa K: Before any questions get asked Papa K: I’d like to congratulate the team that was very well presented paper. Papa K: I know this team struggled to pull together all the data and information that we had and quite frankly work really hard to make it all come together. Papa K: In this last few weeks, so congratulations to them. I’m very impressed with the quality and the quantity of information and how it was truly presented.
Well, the Johanna Sanchez: Thinking car. Okay. Luis Medel: Thank you. Appreciate it. Ahmed Basfar: Thank you, everybody. Abraham-Rav-Noy: I have a quick question. Abraham-Rav-Noy: I believe that was a requirement for deployment.
I think 30 something thousand feet. Is that correct, Ahmed Basfar: one kilometres. So basically 1000 meters. Abraham-Rav-Noy: What was Abraham-Rav-Noy: What was driving that requirement. And I’m curious how it helps because that’s pretty low altitude what you’d actually be deployed in space.
Ahmed Basfar: That was basically given by the customer. Adrian Morales: Actually, I could take this one. Adrian Morales: I’m actually the the electrical engineering lead for the eagle rocketry club on campus.
And so we had joined a competition I wreck. It’s a competition where you launch a rocket Adrian Morales: To 30,000 feet. And one of the required not requirements, but you can earn extra points if you have a payload and you do you know you deliver the payload. So that’s where the 30,000 comes from.
Exactly. So, um, Adrian Morales: The stress that you see is our is actually like our objection mechanism stress, but this is far in the future because we actually got canceled because of covidien we kind of stopped all that Abraham-Rav-Noy: Thanks. Michael Thorburn: During the presentation.
It was mentioned that the communication system was tested just over a distance of 40 meters. Michael Thorburn: What additional work would need to be done to do that test over Michael Thorburn: Over the desire range, which I think was a mile. Adrian Morales: Okay, so I could also take that one. So the, the radios, the radios ranges about 1200 meters.
So really we just have to test them at 1200 meters. Adrian Morales: But again, with my rocketry Club. I’m also using expertise and we were able to range test them.
Adrian Morales: We tried range testing them from campus and to campus and and there’s too much noise here like with Adrian Morales: So we don’t get any signal just being here on campus. So we’d have to go somewhere where it’s pretty flat. Maybe an empty to actually test out a mile. So really would probably just have to go to like a desert and try it out there.
Michael Thorburn: When you see noise. Michael Thorburn: What do you mean precisely Adrian Morales: So, so with my other team with my rockets and we have the exact same radios, we have the exact same expertise. Adrian Morales: And we were able to get communication from one side of the football field to the other side of the football field. So that’s about 100 meters or something like that.
But as soon as we went on the Adrian Morales: Like from from Simpson tower, all the way down to like the cafeteria, though, that big long stretch. We tried testing it there and they just don’t talk and we had like a high gain antenna pointed directly at it. Adrian Morales: And we couldn’t like establish communication there so we figured that if we had a flatter space or maybe a place where there’s less interference that we could we could communicate with those Abraham-Rav-Noy: This is an RF system. Adrian Morales: Yeah, it’s an XP our module. Abraham-Rav-Noy: What frequencies are you transmitting at Adrian Morales: 2.4 gigahertz.
Michael Thorburn: I liked the article of the deployment of the boom. Michael Thorburn: It looks like it just naturally just deployed very, very quickly, but you’re going to roll this out slowly, is that correct Michael Thorburn: So, Michael Thorburn: Are there. Michael Thorburn: Heavy.
Did you do any tests that looked at rolling out the boom slowly. Brandon Brownell: So, oh hey Mike This is Brandon, by the way. So basically the reason why it deploys in this state so fast, is because we are doing it the opposite way. So as you can see in the photo to your right.
Brandon Brownell: When it isn’t. It’s coiled state it is completely stable, but when you hold on to the tip of that portion of the boom and unroll it it’ll unroll that fast. However, if you hold the spool.
Brandon Brownell: As if it were mounted. So for example, if you were to squeeze the top and the bottom of that spoke it will not just shoot out. So you actually have to unroll it by hand. Brandon Brownell: But when it’s held on to the tip, like how I’m holding it right there and you let it go and unravels like that. So we knew that when we put this into the spacecraft specifically inside the deployment mechanism.
Brandon Brownell: We knew for sure that it would not unravel by sub due to the effects of by stability that the material had Brandon Brownell: And then we also confirmed that it wouldn’t arrive, like you see in my hand because we did some several tests where we held it Brandon Brownell: On the tip and on the side of each role and we confirm that it would not deploy, like you see here. We just wanted to explain the audience that the material had two states where when it’s coiled, it can be coiled and very Brandon Brownell: It basically it stayed in that state and it wouldn’t have an erratic deployment behavior. Whereas when the boom was deployed as you can see now. Brandon Brownell: It has a completely different structure and it allowed a perfect solid structure to hold our solar cells. So to answer your question.
Brandon Brownell: We did do test. And we did confirm the fact that we could actually roll this up inside of a cube without it automatically deploying on us, it would stay in the cloud state like you senior right Michael Thorburn: Thank you for me. Michael Thorburn: Are there other questions. Alex Guilbaud: I have a quick question regarding the boom. Michael Thorburn: Okay.
Alex Guilbaud: So I don’t know. Did you mention about how much force the boom can hold like if it was able to withstand the weight of this issue. Brandon Brownell: So yeah, so that’s something that we had mentioned in our in the last slide is that we had not got into the testing, we were successful and recreating the booms, in the sense that we were able to get a working prototype, like you see. But unfortunately, we ran out of time. Brandon Brownell: For any sort of testing.
So that is actually a task item for next year’s project. Brandon Brownell: To major test I should be conducted would be a simple tense all tests and then a bending test and where the bending test would be conducted where the tip would be a bending force being pulled by the solar sails and the mounting point would be your fixed location. Alex Guilbaud: Okay. I was wondering how you would conduct the test, but uh yeah you gave me. Thank you.
Tannaz: May I ask a question from Eagle rocketry priests. Tannaz: Sure, Bonnie. Thank you very much. This is 10 hours with the CubeSat organization.
I’m wondering how if you could explain please the deployment of the CubeSat a little bit about it, how it’s going to be deployed at that certain angle at 30,000 feet. Tannaz: And what kind of mechanism is pushing that this the the unit actually out and Tannaz: What are the errors possible errors and that is possible. Thank you. Adrian Morales: Okay, yeah, I’ll go ahead and take this one.
So, so again I’m involved with both of these teams and one of the thing I one of the challenges was actually Adrian Morales: went too far this so you have like a pair of belt bollock trajectory and at the at the peak of the Adrian Morales: Trajectory at the top, you were going to fire a drug, which will which is a smaller little tiny parachute that stabilizes it Adrian Morales: So that it becomes like more vertical. So that’s falling vertically and then much closer to the ground we deploy mean Adrian Morales: But so we wanted to catch it right after the right after that that peak. So when it’s coming down, it should.
It should be stabilized vertically and then we were going to use like when we had a couple of years, we were going to use Adrian Morales: A plate basically a spring loaded plate to just Adrian Morales: With latches to actually. So when we actually the latches. The play is already spring loaded and it will just like fire out of a little window that’s on the side of the rocket.
That was our main design and we actually didn’t get to that point and the rocketry club. Adrian Morales: So it was so that’s that that was the main going kind of how we would deploy it.
Tannaz: So thank you very much. Adrian Morales: Of course, Michael Thorburn: Other questions. Brandon Brownell: We would also. We also have some questions in the chat.
So if you would like to speak on behalf of the individual who asked the question, please, Mike. Michael Thorburn: Oh, okay. Michael Thorburn: All right from the chat room. I see.
Stephen Chong asked how long will the batteries last Adrian Morales: Oh I’m sorry, I replied to that question, but I didn’t see that I I sent that response personally into Carl Adrian Morales: But, um, yeah. So the batteries. So for a 30 minute mission we consumed about point eight for read, which is not a lot.
And when we received our CubeSat. It came with three battery cells. So it was Adrian Morales: About 24 read. So that’s about 24 that’s about 24 missions before we need to recharge the battery.
So we have, we have a lot of reserve power. So the battery should last like 212 hours, something like that. Michael Thorburn: Okay. Michael Thorburn: Jason asks, What’s the crease indicator Luis Medel: Go answer that one. So crease indicator is basically an indication for you as you can see in the images for those wrinkles Luis Medel: Those wrinkles has some intelligence and the solar cell and the higher than dimensions and the more wrinkles, you have, the less efficient your songs so will be when Luis Medel: Creating dress for the system.
So, the higher your crease indicator on the skills or to what the sufficient in your solar cell will become Luis Medel: How was a number four is calculated from the solar cell number four is Luis Medel: There was a journal published that I got some cookie some formula from. And after that I ran in and met them with some new their formula. Luis Medel: And I just saw which number of phones will have the best efficiency for our solar cell in our mission. And these were the number of followers. And after that I just implement implemented them into the solar cell.
Michael Thorburn: It was also asked how is the sale attached to the boom. Luis Medel: A this cell will be attached that those edges of sorry I can’t work anything Luis Medel: Yeah, those edges right there with we enforce material and some rings that will be attached to the booms using some springs, but unfortunately we couldn’t do that that attachment due to cover 19 and will be there for future and works. Michael Thorburn: Ok there. Any other questions at this time. Michael Thorburn: If not, well, let me think.
The team. Michael Thorburn: Good presentation. Michael Thorburn: Obviously a lot of work that was done. Well, congratulations. Luis Medel: Thank you. Thank you, everybody. Thank you. Papa K: Professor thank you guys. Luis Medel: for attending. Luis Medel: Oh at the more questions. No.
Michael Thorburn: Nobody was just asking me, I will post a link Michael Thorburn: To a survey, I’ll do that right now so that everybody can offer feedback on this presentation and the others. Michael Thorburn: Our next presentation will begin in about five minutes. Michael Thorburn: This will be the Stirling engine design. Michael Thorburn: So we’ll get that scheduled to start at four o’clock. Michael Thorburn: If the Stirling engine team is here, you can share your screen and and Michael Thorburn: Put your first slide.
Michael Thorburn: Well welcome back everybody. This is Expo 2020 Michael Thorburn: We’re about halfway through this afternoon session. Michael Thorburn: We’ve got three more presentations to go in this afternoon. And then there’s a full complement of presentations from 12 until noon, or I’m sorry, from 12 until six tomorrow afternoon as well. Michael Thorburn: At the end of every presentation.
We have a call. Trick survey for you to fill out the link to the call track survey is posted in the chat room if you need another copy, just let me know and I will be happy to send you a copy to the link Michael Thorburn: The students and I both appreciate the feedback that you provide with regards to the presentation. Michael Thorburn: Our next team is the Stirling engine design team. Are you guys ready to go.
Mohammed Alharthy: YesWe’re ready to go. Michael Thorburn: Well, take it away. Mohammed Alharthy: Hi everyone, my name is Mohammed hearty.
I’m a mechanical engineering student, we have the selling Engine team, our advisor is dr Schaefer David Charla and our client is Dr. Jim co Mohammed Alharthy: So I’m going to be talking about the team breakdown introduction project requirements structure and web s Mohammed Alharthy: So first of all, introduce you to my team, our team leader is Oscar courteous. He’s a mechanical engineer, he’s responsible for experimental setup and creating parts list lab manual and experimental procedure.
Mohammed Alharthy: And then we have Jonathan loris he’s an electrical engineer, he’s responsible for real time data collection and troubleshooting guide for data acquisition system on hardware and we have a whole you he’s an electrical engineer, he’s responsible for sensor selection and testing. Mohammed Alharthy: And data acquisition system selection and testing. Mohammed Alharthy: So our objective is to design and develop an experiment for the thermodynamics lab that help the student understand the fundamental of thermodynamics Mohammed Alharthy: This experiment is a perfect tool for the student to understand the first and second law of thermodynamics. Our approach is to create an experiment that records value and pressure and temperature from selling engine.
Mohammed Alharthy: So we researched various sensors and setups to satisfy the lab safety requirement we selected sensor software and the requisition system hardware and integrate integrated them into the selling engine. Mohammed Alharthy: We test and validate our experimental setup. Mohammed Alharthy: Through ridges simulation of experimental process. Mohammed Alharthy: So our requirement.
Mohammed Alharthy: For the dimension we were looking for something that can be easily stored in the thermodynamics lab. So this is the dimension of a cabinet and thermodynamics lab for the way to just something that can be carried by anyone. Mohammed Alharthy: For the time duration.
This is based on how many groups in a lab. Usually there are five groups in a lab and the duration of a lab is two hour and 30 minutes so we are experiment setup is designed to hand the five trials and or 30 minutes for trial. Mohammed Alharthy: For the heat source for safety regulationWe’re required to not have an open flame. Mohammed Alharthy: And our budget is $500 and sample data rate based on initial testing. We think in 100 data points where cycle is sufficient enough to get clear P diagram.
Mohammed Alharthy: This is our work breakdown structure. Mohammed Alharthy: And the next slide is this is the schedule. This is how we keep track of everything and make sure we on track all the time. Mohammed Alharthy: I know I’ll pass it over to Jonathan Jonathan Larios: Thank you, mommy so far deliverables.
We actually implemented a Stirling engine, we create a lab manuals describing the experiments that can be performed. Jonathan Larios: Well with current setup. We also created. So Tom troubleshooting guides and wiring guides and partners, along with cat files. And lastly, we created a final report describing the development process of the project.
Jonathan Larios: So with our, our lab manuals. Jonathan Larios: Not only do we create experiments, but with the within Jonathan Larios: My menu. We also created the theories and parts.
So the students have a better understanding Jonathan Larios: Within this troubleshooting guide. As you can see in this slide we have troubleshoot it that are with the software, hardware and sensors and we created this. So if a professor comes up with the issue. They can he can easily check the troubleshooting guide and know how to fix it.
Jonathan Larios: And lastly, it would be the wiring guide. So with the wiring guide what we do with that one is in case of the wire comes out from a pin, they know where to plug it back in and Jonathan Larios: What we what we did to make it even easier is we’ve fiscally labeled the wires to one pendant supposed to go to Jonathan Larios: And as you can see here the Stirling engine is what the one we use during our testing. You can see some parties that we have here to file the piston that displays for and then the CO play in the hot plate, which makes the which what creates the pressure Jonathan Larios: And now we talking about the sensors and essentially that we use for the pressure position and temperature. Jonathan Larios: So with the pressure sensor.
You can see the one that we chose for this project it’s highlighted, which would be the Jonathan Larios: G. This is a pressure sensor. Its function is through a file resistive transducer which converts the force or pressure into voltage we did encounter some issues, but we solved it by inputting the correctable equation. And once was, this was resolved testing was simplify for the pressure Jonathan Larios: For the position sensor.
As you can see, the one that we chose is the one that’s highlighted, which is the GP to why oh F 15 x Jonathan Larios: Its function is to admit the light and see the reflection from the target issues that we encountered during this sensor was that the data sheet was a bit difficult to understand. Jonathan Larios: But after given more thought to it and contacting a manufacturer. We were, we were able to figure out by inverting the voltage output given the data is given in millimeters Jonathan Larios: Next will be the temperature sensor and as you can see here the last the highlighted one would be the winner. We chose for our final one. Jonathan Larios: Which the H 240 thermo is a data logger that utilizes to thermal couples voltage is created when there’s a change of temperature and it’s simple to use and it’s variable, variable in the thermal system labs.
Jonathan Larios: And now pass it on to Hulu, who talked about the microprocessors. Julio Cano: Thank you, Jonathan. So for the course of the project, we were looking at three different microprocessors the Arduino Uno. The National instrument my deck and the one we eventually like to which is the laptops. Many is a little comparison table.
Julio Cano: For the three software’s Arduino Uno uses its own native Arduino hardware National Instruments my deck uses the levee heart software and the lapis many uses software called blogger pro all three data visions are fairly small and portable and their own respects. Julio Cano: And they have a very similar output voltage between 05 volts for the Arduino. The National Instruments you zero 10 boat and allow as many Julio Cano: Users. There are five volts, this was important because when we decided to pick on our center. We wanted to have sensor that could be used on either the three.
So we kept within a zero to five volt range for each center. Julio Cano: The cost of the arena was the is the cheapest one at $22. It also has a Julio Cano: smaller sample rate next would be the one, the highest one would be the National History of my bag. It’s a 371 but it also has five times more sample rate and the next one.
Lapis many Julio Cano: While the laugh as many as 169 more in the middle of both centers and also has a pretty good sample rate at 100 kilohertz. Julio Cano: So firstly, there was the Arduino know this is where we started. All our experimental phases of any sensor, unfortunately. Julio Cano: As we went through success factors sensory found that, you know, would fall short of our project requirements so requirement being I think 100 data points per Sterling cycle.
Julio Cano: If our shirt, when you try and pressure sensor and optical sensor to the point that they are you know became a tool to verify sensor functionality as opposed to actually trying to Julio Cano: accomplish that task. Julio Cano: Following Arduino testing one thing we’re sure that our sensor. Like, for example, the pressure sensor was able to collect the pressure we moved on to the national instrument, my back. Julio Cano: For the nationals for Amanda.
We use a software called love you and we weren’t successful importing over the pressure sensor on to love you and collecting real time data at 100 points per cycle. Julio Cano: Unfortunately, around the time when we were porting over the optical sensor. It was the time of laughs closing. So therefore, we weren’t able to use them.
My dad. My dad was. I guess we were strictly using in the sensors lab. So we had a move on from the National sister and my dad, unfortunately. Julio Cano: But Julio Cano: I guess we got some good news.
When we were able to acquire a lot less money for our own at home usage. Julio Cano: We had a port over both sensors, the pressure sensor and the optical sensor and we were successful and testing each sensor out individually and making sure they were both able to collect 100 data points per Sterling cycle. Julio Cano: Now, for, as mentioned earlier the lackluster many uses a software called lager pro Julio Cano: , the image on the right is a sample of what the user interface will look like. Julio Cano: Through the Logic Pro software able to output question and volume data from both sensors synchronously.
So, at the same time. Julio Cano: The only issue. We can run into is that the sensors as they’re not very near sensors that are not native lab percent so we had to go through a Julio Cano: Very long calibration process to make sure they were working after we were successful in that regard, we began testing each sensor starting at 100 hertz and cranking it up since love a lot of cross off unless you manually input the hertz frequency of the sensor.
Julio Cano: This is a sample of what the data would look like from the lawyer pro software and it organizes everything by time following by a Julio Cano: Second column which is the potential, which is the pressure reading that it would get at that second time for a millisecond. It gives up voltage which is we actually by calibrating the sensor we’re converting that voltage into a Julio Cano: Pressure reading Julio Cano: Next would be the fourth column. The green one is the millimeter reading, we were getting at the time of that same second so the pressure reading and the millimeter at the exact same time, same thing we would convert that into a volumetric data and the common right Julio Cano: So, this is this was actually our first initial experiment. This was the first setup we had when we were trying to Julio Cano: Test out the Stirling engine, we were using a we were collecting pressure data through live you at this point using the pressure sensor Jada talked about the NPV Julio Cano: Rpm data was collected throughout our handheld computer and temperature data was collected through the H 233 o’clock.
What we ended up keeping toward the end of the experiment. Julio Cano: Next step, I guess it was to just test out the overall robustness of the engine. This was done by running the engine for long periods of time. Julio Cano: It’s supposed to run for a 30 minute period.
So we were trying to push it and see how much, how long can actually run without breaking down Julio Cano: We were also running and stopping the engine at random times just to see how it will react to. If it was stopped after a minute, as opposed to the 20 minutes or so it should be running Julio Cano: We will close and restart the blogger pro software. This is all just in an effort to see any Julio Cano: Any quirks that would happen whether that it will be easy to restart or we have to recalibrate each sensor individually or basically what’s the process that would be needed in the event that this these events happen. Julio Cano: And I now pass over the slider to Oscar.
Oscar Cortez: So this Oscar Cortez: Design this Oscar Cortez: Stirling engine is placed on top of a hot plate with all of the answer sensors integrated into it. Oscar Cortez: FirstWe’re going to be taking a look at the optical sensor and how that was mounted on here you can see that it was bolted on to support arm for the flywheel. Oscar Cortez: The optical sensor needed to be mounted a pretty applied to kind of suit the optimum optimum range for the optical sensor which is about 115 millimeters Oscar Cortez: The way the optical sensor is housed inside is the sensor mount kind of is is an enclosure and that holds the optical sensor in place. We also created a cover to kind of protect the sensor from any debris or any Oscar Cortez: Other components.
Oscar Cortez: In order to make this optical sensor work. Oscar Cortez: A displacement arm needed to be incorporated or created this displacement arm is directly connected to the display, sir. At the bottom of the engine. Oscar Cortez: In order to calculate volume we needed to know the position of this display, sir.
And this displacement arm directly translates that position and it allows the optical sensor to pick up that information. Oscar Cortez: As testing went on, we realized that this displacement arm would rotate, which is why we had to incorporate a guide tower. So this prevents any rotation. Oscar Cortez: This arm was created after several iterations. It’s press fit into the displaces shaft and that prevents that kind of holds it in place.
And then there’s also a pin that goes through perpendicular to that display so shocked to prevent any slippage any vertical slippage. Oscar Cortez: So that surface on the displacement arm is what the optical sensor is tracking with respect to time. Oscar Cortez: Next we’re going to be looking at how the pressure sensor was integrated this sort of Mount or bracket is is secured on by nuts and bolts that we’re already being used to hold the whole top and bottom play together on this mount encloses and protects the pressure sensor. Oscar Cortez: It’s connect the pressure sensor is connected via a host to the to a fitting on the top plate that has access into the key chamber which allows us to collect pressure Oscar Cortez: Here we can see how it’s all assembled the pressure, the pressure sensor sits on top of sensor mount, which is secured by a sensor bracket that protects not only the sensor.
But, as well as the connections themselves and it’s held on by two fascinating screws. Oscar Cortez: Here we see the H2 40 thermometer that was chosen along with the thermal couples that are going to be used. Oscar Cortez: Any anytime a thermal couple is is plugged in, you’re going to see a temperature reading in this case it would be like Tier one and Tier two Oscar Cortez: And you would get those temperature readings.
At the same time, these thermal couples would be mounted are installed on to the top, middle of the top and bottom plates using thermal tape. Oscar Cortez: Because the temperature difference needs to be recorded. When conducting the experiment. Oscar Cortez: Here we see the final design all assembled all the parts were mainly 3D printed. They were designed on solid works and then 3D printed using a obviously a 3D printer.
Oscar Cortez: So this is what we ended up testing with when we started collecting data and running our robustness testing. Oscar Cortez: Here we see the experimental results. So we were able to get a pressure versus volume graph. Oscar Cortez: You from the data collected from those experiments, the area inside this pressure is volume graph gives us the Oscar Cortez: Work that this Stirling engine produced, which in this case was 27.24 modules. Oscar Cortez: We had a theoretical value of 1,834.6 million rules.
Oscar Cortez: That’s basically ideal Stirling engine with no losses, such as losses and friction and heat as well as like the efficiency of the generator Oscar Cortez: From this we noticed that the efficiency of this particular Stirling engine based on our results was about 1.47% on average a well built Stirling engine is around 10 to 20% efficient. Oscar Cortez: Our efficiency is pretty low. I guess because it’s such a low cost engine that the Stirling engine three generator is not as efficient as as other ones.
Oscar Cortez: Here this is how we calculated the the ideal Stirling engine cycle. Sorry. The work produced by an ideal Stirling engine within the cycle. Oscar Cortez: cold plate temperature was needed, as well as hot plate temperature which we have those and the specific gas of air specific as possible there and as well as the compression ratio, which is the maximum volume over the minimum volume of the engine. Oscar Cortez: So the team was able to successfully design and develop an experiment that demonstrates the fundamentals of thermodynamics, complete with supporting usage documentation and educational guides Oscar Cortez: The process included developing an approach with detailed work schedule design, fabrication assembly, as well as testing and evaluation.
Oscar Cortez: big thank you to Dr. Juan for allowing us to use the for giving us data acquisition guidance and allowing us to use and test that with his National Instruments hardware. Oscar Cortez: Also thank you to Dr.
Raymond for allowing us to test with his lab West hardware throughout the semester. Oscar Cortez: Mainly throughout this whole epidemic, we were able to get a lot of work done at home with his with his equipment and a special thanks to Dr. Shoulder for his dedication and challenging and guiding us throughout this whole project. Oscar Cortez: Any questions.
Michael Thorburn: Okay, thank you. Team. Michael Thorburn: Um, Michael Thorburn: We have, we have ample time for questions. Michael Thorburn: Who would like to go first. Michael Thorburn: What did you say your efficiency ended up being Oscar Cortez: One, I think it was 1.47 yeah 1.47% Oscar Cortez: Compared to an ideal Stirling engine, which doesn’t take into consideration, like losses.
Oscar Cortez: And like like heat and friction Michael Thorburn: Okay. Ye Aung: Hi. Ye Aung: I have a question regarding the data acquisition and system system, um, were there any difficulties troubleshooting for regarding noise and how is it process handle Jonathan Larios: Um, in regards to noise I wouldn’t say there would be. We don’t have any issues with noise but Jonathan Larios: What we did see because we when we first did our experiment. We didn’t really have like a constant temperature difference.
So we use like a cup of boiling water on the Jonathan Larios: Bottom play which which is the hot plate and just like room temperature on the top plate, which took the Coldplay and as time passed by, you can see like from the difference between one minute. Jonathan Larios: And three minutes increased a lot more Jonathan Larios: So basically as temperature decrease Jonathan Larios: You’ll see much more noise in with Jonathan Larios: Collecting the pressure Luke: Hi. I guess I have a follow on question to that one. Did you apply any sort of filtering or any sort of data processing to your to the data that you collected Jonathan Larios: No, no, we didn’t, we didn’t, we didn’t do any filtering with that.
Oscar Cortez: After it. Sorry. After the data was collected we we did graph. Oscar Cortez: The data. There was some spikes.
And we did filters some some Oscar Cortez: Overly I guess exaggerated points that were completely incorrect. So there was some filtering on once once the data was seen on Excel and plot it. Abraham-Rav-Noy: Was outliers.
Luke: Sorry, what was that Abraham-Rav-Noy: What do you think the cosmos for the outliers. Oscar Cortez: Sorry, what was that Abraham-Rav-Noy: You mentioned that there were some points that you filtered out Abraham-Rav-Noy: Yeah, stuff that didn’t seem to be realistic. What was, what do you think the causes for those points was that Aaron sensor.
Oscar Cortez: Most likely it was Aaron in the sensor. Oscar Cortez: Probably due to like resolution. Abraham-Rav-Noy: I don’t you calculate the area and the TV diagram.
What methods do you use Mohammed Alharthy: You just integrated the area under the curve and then subtracting that from the area on the bottom. Abraham-Rav-Noy: So you separated the curves and then just like a carpet. Yes. Mohammed Alharthy: I calculated both areas and such attracted the one from the other. Thanks.
Michael Thorburn: Other questions. Sangbum S. Choi: Yes. First continuation of the essential problem. What was the criteria that you choose, you know, out of us limited a layer three other you know sensors and then you choose want.
I was kind of isn’t here. Why you choose one out of those answers. Jonathan Larios: Okay, yeah, if you go back to the pressure. First, I believe we talked about the pressure first.
Okay, so we’re compared to be MP one at Jonathan Larios: Death base was actually used from last year’s and we realized the sensor that they had had was either they burned it burnt out or something because Jonathan Larios: We couldn’t get click enter data reading from there. And even if we did buy a new one. Jonathan Larios: We realized that the rain started at 300 Hector Pascal and not at zero killer packs out and we believe that are starting range for our pressure sensor should start at zero killer Pascal. So that’s why we chose the NPV 5010 GE Jonathan Larios: And then if you go to the position sensors, we would.
So the first two are actually Jonathan Larios: Alter the HTTPS are for an LV max owners actually both ultrasonic sensors during our PDF from last semester we were Jonathan Larios: Explained. And we were told that I’ll try. These are good, but when it comes to routing smaller distance, the bigger Aaron range happens.
Therefore, we were like, We we chose okay we continue to move forward from the Jonathan Larios: Ultrasonic sensors, and then we went to the optical sensors with the optical sensors. Jonathan Larios: We we’ve gone to the VO six 180 X, but we noticed that with the I that once I to see and we needed to like an extra debt acquisition with the National Instruments. Jonathan Larios: Because that was that was going to be our first choice, but since the did a whole Kobe 19 happened, everything we had to choose a different Jonathan Larios: Sense of which was the last one we chose that GB to wiser F 15 X and it was much easier to use, much, much more friendly and a we made sure it read the millimeters correctly by we use like a ruler and measured like a piece of paper.
Jonathan Larios: In front of it and we measured on top of the ruler, and we’ll see how much distance they collected and especially with the GPU I oh another thing that’s really important for that you needed at like a white Jonathan Larios: Reflective so like a white piece of paper because if you use any other Jonathan Larios: I say reflective, it’s not going to give you as much good accurate data. Jonathan Larios: So those are the reasons why we chose the ones that are highlighted and with the thermal couples it’s it’s friendly to us and it’s available in Adama labs already Sangbum S. Choi: So go back to the previous slide. Sangbum S. Choi: Which don’t censor, but let’s say VM, you find out.
That’s a much better, you know, back and GP, it is you simply choose that, because it’s easy to implement. Jonathan Larios: Not, not easy to implement, like I wasn’t getting as well. But with the ultrasonic sensors. We were told to NPR, that the smaller the ultrasonic this distance ultrasonic sensors reach the more air.
It’s going to create. So that’s why Jonathan Larios: We were like, okay, we have to move on from the ultrasonic sensors. Sangbum S. Choi: So you got some kind of confusion there because of the previous article has a zero to 100 millimeters, which is a much narrower range than 1.5 centimeter to 15 centimeters, which is 50 millimeter 250 millimeter and resolution.
Sangbum S. Choi: I think it’s all similar and response time. It’s much better. Jonathan Larios: Okay, so, you know, are you asking about the optical be out 168 X Men to the energy BTR so for those two weeks for the optical via 168 x, we noticed that you needed a different so we weren’t going to go with the National Instruments first.
That was our first choice, but our issue was that Jonathan Larios: For in order to use natural instrument you needed another data acquisition, which I to see basically and it’s going to be way more than what we had for the national instrument or university kit. But then when the coven 19 happen. We had to Jonathan Larios: Change on picking our optical sensors, because we didn’t. We couldn’t even take the national instruments. Jonathan Larios: Home due to that it was in the sense of lab.
Therefore, we had to pick something that was Jonathan Larios: Much easier, much more reliable to take home. So we had to start doing more research and therefore, we had to we picked on the last sensor ease. If you to take home and it could be used. It didn’t need like another extra data hardware as well too. Sangbum S. Choi: So, but you did have adrenal which can implement the square conspiracy Jonathan Larios: Yes.
So when we use the Arduino Uno. We were actually not using Arduino program. We were actually using a different program, call Jonathan Larios: Lab you and once we used to live you we noticed that a sample rate was was going from Jonathan Larios: 73 or one sensor.
But then when we use when we added on a different sensor, it decreases by a whole bunch. I went down from 73 hurts to 46 hertz and during our initial testing we needed something at least to collect 100 Hertz of sample rate. Michael Thorburn: Any other questions. Michael Thorburn: Okay, if not, what congratulations Team.
Michael Thorburn: Job well done not not such an easy thing to build and get to work, as you’ve learned Julio Cano: You. Thank you. Michael Thorburn: So our next presentation will start in just about 10 minutes. This is the project Mexico team.
Michael Thorburn: So please stay with us and Michael Thorburn: Welcome back. Michael Thorburn: This is Expo. Michael Thorburn: Cal State LA is first all Michael Thorburn: Virtual Expo.
Michael Thorburn: Here. Michael Thorburn: But Michael Thorburn: We’ve got a couple more papers afternoon with the next one is going to be the project Mexico team, followed by the formula SAE team. Michael Thorburn: And then we have another set of Michael Thorburn: So without any further delay, let me introduce Michael Thorburn: The project Mexico team man I’ll allow them to introduce one another.
Michael Thorburn: Thank you. Bryan Castillo: Okay, I’m gonna go ahead and begin Michael Thorburn: Good. Bryan Castillo: Perfect. So we’re project Mexico solar power monitoring system.
Bryan Castillo: And I’m going to be doing the Bryan Castillo: Last year’s team was able to install solar panels which provided electricity to schools for the computer lab. Bryan Castillo: Is for three different schools which are some distance from each other, be located in a very remote areas. And just to give you an idea. Bryan Castillo: And how remote the nearest hardware stores for some of these schools are about 100 miles away. Let me explain you a map, real quick.
So the school year while Haka Mexico Pacific how you see how many G and San Juan ad pack. Bryan Castillo: Wide some distance from out here in Los Angeles, all this, please, a very key factor in your project. And essentially, as you see in real estate, location, location, location, having our hardware store. Bryan Castillo: 100 miles. And that’s like the closest one from your school can give you an idea about the resources that are available to these schools.
Bryan Castillo: This is what the school is look like they’re concrete and much of the amenities that we are accustomed to here in the United States. Bryan Castillo: editions of the schools where they’re needed are very low, which is why the schools are very big Bryan Castillo: Also, when I said, rural, this is kind of what I meant. This picture is an actual representation of one of the schools. And this is exactly how all three of the schools look like where they’re located at Bryan Castillo: Act of the material that they’re made out of concrete is another key factor that played a big role, which we’re going to talk about later.
Bryan Castillo: A little background behind me schools is that these serve kindergarten to eighth grade these schools are located in impoverished areas of students tend to drop out after the eighth grade.
Bryan Castillo: As you can see in the picture. Some of these students go to school without shoes and for many of them, it’s the first time they’ve you’re seeing computer Bryan Castillo: It’s not just the students.
But the teacher as well. And this please let no other major key factor for our project as teachers don’t know Bryan Castillo: How to operate or the basic functions on how a computer operates a little backstory behind the reason why we’re doing what we’re doing for a project for organization engineers for a sustainable world is that one of the principles at one of these schools. Bryan Castillo: Thought it would be okay to cut the power off to these batteries which charged for the solar panel without telling anybody Bryan Castillo: Organization were doing before. It didn’t come to realize it for a month. And by then the batteries had oxidize and we’re no longer function properly.
Bryan Castillo: The way the system works is that there’s three lights, red, yellow and green. Green, meaning that the system is fully charged and everyone can use the computer without issues yellow being the system is burning out of charge. Bryan Castillo: And then red being that the system is about to shut off. Now I’m going to hand it over to Christopher about the concepts for this.
Christopher Rodriguez: Okay, so my name is Chris Rodriguez and I’m talking about the concepts and the project scope. So to begin, you know, we designed a monitoring system so that Christopher Rodriguez: We can access and remotely monitor an existing system that’s in Mexico and the reason being is they don’t have any Wi Fi internet or a lot of electricity. Christopher Rodriguez: Over there. So we built this monitoring system to operate in a rural area and you know these were our main objectives which was get our voltage current temperature and humidity. Christopher Rodriguez: And all of this was going to be sent through satellite so that we can remotely access to that capital layer through any server that we have locally.
Christopher Rodriguez: And we wouldn’t have to travel out there to check our system so below that, you can see that we have a timeline of Christopher Rodriguez: How our system operates and where we’re actually taking data from. So if you look, you have your solar panel. You also have a charge controller which was our initial idea to gather data from Christopher Rodriguez: And between them. We have our actual module that we built which collects data from different tests points along the bed. Then we go to our satellite and ultimately our computer to access all their data.
Christopher Rodriguez: Excellent. Christopher Rodriguez: And why is this important, so as Brian said earlier in slides. Professor cut off. Christopher Rodriguez: Power to our batteries.
And we actually have 3030 battery packs around 30 battery packs in each location. Each averaging around $165 Christopher Rodriguez: So when you know Paris cut to them, they’re not being able to, they’re not able to charge and the batteries become they start to oxidize which become unusable. Ultimately, next slide.
Christopher Rodriguez: And our rules and assignments are pretty simple, we’d lay them out here. So we had Brian as a project manager for the semester. Kevin Molina was on Christopher Rodriguez: Our web design Daniel to Linda did power system design. I was supposed to be doing the data analysis Ramiro was supposed to be doing the assembly step on our research and Kevin raise was our communication and transmission Christopher Rodriguez: Next slide. Christopher Rodriguez: And our deliverables were basically laid out for the entire year or semester and our goals and our deadlines are explainn here.
We did accomplish a lot of our goals and our deadlines within the first two months of the semester and throw a lot of last year and Christopher Rodriguez: Yeah, we weren’t able to completely finish. So the next slide. Christopher Rodriguez: And now I’m going to hand it off to Kevin Molina, he’s going to tell you guys about the design of Kevin: Everyone. I’m Kevin Lena, I’m gonna be talking about the design overview of our project looks like. Kevin: So before we get into our design overview.
I’m just going to list out our requirements that we were asked of. So the first Kevin: Thing was to build up the test bed. We were allowed access to a scale of prototype of the power systems that are in Mexico.
Kevin: The first thing that we needed to do was to make sure those that testbed was fully operational, which meant rewiring which troubleshooting. After that we were to build our data, data acquisition system. And from that we needed to take in voltage current temperature and humidity readings. Kevin: Next was the telemetry, or how we were supposed to transmit that data.
We were, we are going to use a Dropbox seven device to transmit that data. After that, we also needed to think about how to house this data acquisition unit, we decided to have one Kevin: Instance enclosure for the whole system and built three of those in order to take to the three different locations. And lastly, our web design portion we needed to build a website that would house all of that data in user friendly format which bank graphs and tables looks like.
Kevin: So this is a picture of the tests that we had access to. It’s in the attic of the engineering building, as I mentioned before, we first need to to make sure that the test bed was fully operational which man doing a lot of rewiring and troubleshooting. Kevin: Next, Kevin: So one of the main Kevin: Ideas. We had initially going through with it was to use this electrical component called the charge controller in the system. Kevin: So this charge controllers important because it already has a lot of the work done for us.
It has a lot of the data acquisition that we needed and elementary unfortunately we weren’t able to go this route due to complications with tapping into it. So we decided to use a different approach. Looks like Kevin: So the approach we took was to buy sensors for each of the readings. We needed.
So about your center current sensor temperature, humidity sensors. Kevin: Attached those two different locations on the test bag which are controlled by Arduino boards each all three boards are to be controlled by an Arduino Mega Kevin: And this will simply tell our rock box seven to start transmitting the data and the data will then be transmitted and housed in our website. Kevin: Next slide. Kevin: So this is a sample design of what we hoped. Our website would have looked like.
As you can see, it just needed to display on our data in terms in a form of a graph that can be easily read anywhere. Next slide. Kevin: Now I’ll hand it over to Kevin Ray us to talk about our budgets. Kevin Reyes: Hi, my name is Kevin Reyes, and I will go over the budget.
Kevin Reyes: So the several only explains the cost for one system and we can see that the roadblock is the most expensive item we are using an app design. Kevin Reyes: Costing almost $250 since there are three versions of it. We have to make sure to carefully compare the pros and cons of each other.
So we choose the right one for for our design. I will be talking more about those versions later next Kevin Reyes: So besides from the hardware costs. We have a land grant or cost for that satellite service, which is 15 for you for the eight bucks per month.
It also has a service where we buy credits and we use those credits to send and receive data next Kevin Reyes: So considering the size of each message we sent is 46 bytes. We estimated the cost for sending data for different sampling intervals. Kevin Reyes: For every 15 minutes every hour, and every two hours during a month. At first we planned on sending data every 15 minutes in order to see a nice trend line you know website.
Kevin Reyes: But after seeing how much it turned out to be $1,138 within that the best option is the last one being $210 this price already goes down the line rental costs. Kevin Reyes: 1548 bucks.
And of course, this estimation can still be for their reduced will be compressor data from text to binary format.
Kevin Reyes: Next, Daniel Galindo-Huaman: Hello everyone, my name is Daniela Galindo and I’m perfect Mexico. Thanks for joining us. I’m going to talk about the test points through the solar panel a cost. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: Allocation testing one monitors and state the analog outputs of the temperature sensors.
Daniel Galindo-Huaman: He’s helped us understand and verify that that device is working properly. As you see on the red square that the T eh 11 sensor detects the temperature and discretion, the liquid crystal display. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: Is also have this money for the humanity of its location and a temperature can be read in Celsius or Fahrenheit. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: Now, do you know his program to read the proper temperature of its location and with a simple f l statement, we can trigger a fan motor to help us maintain the temperature of the Arduino and the LCD for overheating. Let’s move to the next slide.
Daniel Galindo-Huaman: This point to location have to strike the output of the maximum PowerPoint tracking, also known as the church controller. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: Controller is a smart pulse width modulation that optimizes that connection between solar panels and battery. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: As you can see on the slide on the red squares, the voltage and AC sensors allocating at the ATO the charge controller. He’s helped us to take and measure the a the DC and he bought his levels.
Daniel Galindo-Huaman: This measurements are very important to maintain the property values and to ensure the safety of the operation since reference voltage of signals made over time due to temperatures and environmental factors. Next slide please. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: This point three areas, the input values from the church controller is values vary from 50 to 75 volts. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: This value must be taking consideration which could lead to having a very bad day as you seen a red square. There’s a CT or one three is a transformer current sensor that measures, an intensity of the Quran that crosses the conductor without needing to modify the conductor itself.
Daniel Galindo-Huaman: Crisis, we weren’t able to complete this test one Daniel Galindo-Huaman: Looks like these. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: And this slide, I’m going to talk about the ITC communication. This is microcontrollers have unique address is allows us to configure multiple addresses to a master device. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: This master device generate plug in data signal the ITC boss is a great option for synchronous communication with the transceiver in this case our transceiver is a roadblock. That is exposed to this was the new Galindo and I’m going to pass it to characterize Kevin Reyes: Next slide.
Kevin Reyes: Next, Kevin Reyes: Okay, so what is truck book. Kevin Reyes: Is a module which contains on the radio transceiver that allows us to send and receive data from anywhere in the world by using the Iridium satellite this device. We can use this device in places where we don’t have access to a white by or yes in our next slide. Kevin Reyes: So here we can see a diagram explaining how that there are travels going from the roadblock for the satellite network in space.
Kevin Reyes: Then the satellites, send the data to the to one of the medium ground stations on Earth. Kevin Reyes: Then it goes Kevin Reyes: Data then goes to the medium servers and find on finally ends up in either an email or a website. Next slide. Kevin Reyes: So as I mentioned before, there are three versions for the Roadblock now read blog 9602 Kevin Reyes: Is mostly used for for prototyping go to, it’s simple design. Kevin Reyes: The roadblock plus is made for external installation.
It is waterproof and it can be mounted on a flat surface, but it has an artist 2320 interface which is which is different from the your input interface. We are working with. And also it is a little bit more expensive. Kevin Reyes: On the other hand, the middle one, the roadblock 96 or three seems to be more promising and we might use it at the end.
Since is way smaller than the other two. And we can install an external antenna thanks to thanks to an SME connector. Next slide. Kevin Reyes: Here we can see the semiconductor and also we there’s the external external antenna my slide. Kevin Reyes: So for our for our products that we use the rock club 96 or two and we we ran some tests.
Luckily, we were able to say Kevin Reyes: We were able to have communication with that Yuri iridium satellite, but unfortunately because of some restrictions due to the current 19 we were able to do this much. Next is just to explain to Kevin Reyes: My web website. Kevin: So, right, so I’ll be talking about the progress we’ve made as far as the web design part goes. So as I mentioned before, the other part of our project was to create a website that will Kevin: Host the data we are acquiring from the system into forms of plots and graphs.
Kevin: The data, we are gathering needs to be viewed from anywhere in the world without having to actually go to Mexico to be able to Kevin: Assess the system health looks like.
We have different pages for each of the test locations. So we have three different places where we’re acquiring acquiring data from call you to have someone take it back. Kevin: We have a separate page for each of the three locations, we will have its own set of graphs and it’s really easy to navigate the Kevin: Website right now it’s hosted on CMS. Your Life Project Mexico calm. It’s fully functional.
You can anyone can see it right now. Kevin: The only things that we weren’t able to accomplish due to our restrictions were to get real data from our rock blog to be to populate the website right now if you go to it all that you’ll see is dummy data and the graphs, but we have set of the dependencies and make sure that Kevin: In the future, it’ll populate real data. Kevin: Next, Michael Thorburn: I think you’re muted. Ramiro Martinez: I welcome.
I’m Romero and I will be talking about that artistic aspect of our project my flight, please. Ramiro Martinez: Alright so logistics. It’s just a detailed organization implementation or complex operation, which is our project which we just explained Ramiro Martinez: And there are three steps. There is a planning stage traveling stage and then the installation.
This is very important because out of all the teams were the only one that has to leave the country in order to make this happen. Next slide please. Ramiro Martinez: Alright, so the first stage has to do with climbing. Ramiro Martinez: And our four steps to this unfortunately we cannot carry out from this point forward, but this will be projected onto the next team. Ramiro Martinez: The first part is the planning.
So we’re estimating about at least 1500 dollars per person, which can be reached by phone racers. We also need passports. Ramiro Martinez: And I think the most challenging part is asking for time off, because by the time graduation comes, we will all be in the job market. So either we have to ask for time off, or we have to delay or employment. Ramiro Martinez: And the last aspect, which is very unique for project be keeping communication with the locals.
Ramiro Martinez: And at the bottom right, we have a link, which has to the TSA procedures in place before all of this Carbonite feeding happened. Next slide please. Ramiro Martinez: And during our travel or the next thing is travel the things to be mindful with culture, language or health and road road in weather conditions for the installation and each site. Ramiro Martinez: Next slide please.
Ramiro Martinez: Okay. So speaking of language and culture. This is unique because even though it’s Mexico and languages. It’s a common language, it is not so we’re we’re going, which is the yellow area and we’re Haka they actually have our native language called automatic game. Ramiro Martinez: So we’re going to need.
And we’re going to do translator, which will have to be coordinated through liaison 910 nine Ramiro Martinez: And for more information. Ramiro Martinez: You can go to this link at the bottom. Next slide please.
Ramiro Martinez: Next slide please. Ramiro Martinez: Alright, so as I was talking about the size. We have three of them.
And here’s a geographical representation between them with credit pack being the furthest away. Ramiro Martinez: Or projection time is two weeks. That’s about two days for installation with the VM traveling between and a couple days for installation.
So that makes for for 15 days, assuming everything goes as planned. Ramiro Martinez: And this concludes the logistical aspects of our project. Next, we’ll have a sterban explain our conclusion.
Esteban Sifuentes: Hi, my name is and I’ll be going over the Conclusion. Esteban Sifuentes: So to summarize our mingle with see remotely monitor the help of the power generation systems. This will help predict points of failure and extend the life of the overall system operation. For example, one of those failure points could be the battery degradation.
Esteban Sifuentes: Next slide please. Esteban Sifuentes: So our accomplishments are we have encountered. Well, we have encountered many obstacles and although we have not reached our overall project goals. We hope that our progress has set up the next team to become successful. Esteban Sifuentes: As listed.
We have a prototype of our data acquisition package. We also set up our test bed with operational check data we have our website up and running. Esteban Sifuentes: And we have the data transmission components ready for integration and testing. Esteban Sifuentes: Next slide please. Esteban Sifuentes: So moving forward, the next team will install these components on the test bed and go into our info into testing our design.
So in the figure. You could see that as Esteban Sifuentes: You can see our proposed placement of our testing or for testing our package and from there they will hopefully Esteban Sifuentes: Won’t have too much work to make the design operational and further make improvements. Esteban Sifuentes: And that concludes our presentation. Michael Thorburn: Okay, thank you. Michael Thorburn: We have lots of time for questions.
Michael Thorburn: Would like to go first. Michael Thorburn: Sure and unmute yourself before you ask a question. Ted: So this is Ted. Let me a Ted: Lot of I get a handful of questions.
When asked you guys Ted: So let’s you don’t have to go back on charts. Let me just ask this, maybe somebody might know that look like every two hours to send data is about 200 bucks a month and Ted: If we have three sites and we have four months in a year, that’s like about little over 7000 bucks a year paying to rock law. Ted: Ninja. I’m just kind of curious. Did anybody look at graph is getting data once a day, and what the cost might be produced.
Getting data once a day. It just gives us a summary of the Ted: The power use, for instance, I mean the data points. You guys are getting but maybe just get that data once a day. Esteban Sifuentes: I know Kevin Reyes had Esteban Sifuentes: looked at that data, but I’m not sure if he Esteban Sifuentes: Looked up to see if it will once a day I’d imagine. It’d be a lot cheaper.
Ted: Yeah, I mean it’s $7 a year. Ted: In a trip down there only cost $50,000 and you guys found that 1500 dollars. So you have to wonder if it’s no cost. Ted: Efficient to do that.
But I think the trick is, we have to Ted: Use that right block in a smart way so we don’t get filled with monthly fees. Ted: But it looks like I mean that data that we can figure that out. It looks like it’s pretty you know we just have to figure out, you know, do we read any data every two hours every hour pretty excessive.
Ted: Because if something goes wrong in the system. It’s days we have to react. It’s not gonna happen overnight. Ted: If they break with us.
That’s pretty quick, and they find that, but if they Ted: Don’t have that, you knowWe’re getting put degradation due to something that was unforeseen. You know, the battery charger stop working or something like that. Ted: And what’s the head over days, usually it’s a week to like stop. Ted: Were able to get any is my new early kind enough to get that funded to get the rock block. Ted: Sees paid it were able to get any data to go up to the rock blocking back to in reread it anywhere on the ground here to a website or otherwise.
Ted: Was anybody able to do that to read any Ted: Was anybody have the data off the rock. Kevin: Know we weren’t able to link the rock back to the website and that’s where we had stopped meeting each other. And when we were about to get to that point.
Ted: Oh, OK. OK. Ted: And Kevin. He said that website works. That sounds pretty interesting. Ted: How was that hosted. You just, you just set that up in a public domain.
And then, and then we need to do to get access to it to edit it or modify the future or do you are to kind of sign us up. See Kevin: Now it’s hosted our advisor was saying he had a blue host account and we were able to just Kevin: Drag and drop other files to Kevin: There and it’s completely public I don’t have. Oh, I have access to all of the files for all of the codes by everything is as long as you have access to the house account.
You also have access to all of the Allison can change anything there. Ted: Also, so Dr. Lin. Ted: Coordinated Kevin: Who Ted: Dr advisor has the Kevin: Mosaic mosaic our Kevin: It was our Ted: Most am, sir, I think that I get wrong advisor. But Dr.
Zane has Ted: access information quit website. Kevin: Right, yeah. He has the credentials for the blue host account and from there. Anyone can just download all of the HTML files Chase, I suppose, anything and Publish. Ted: That’s very good.
And then looks like you guys were able to test fit up in the attic working it looks like the lights are on and things recharging and Ted: I think there’s four batteries on the test bed but we weren’t, we weren’t able to take any data with the instrumentation. You guys came up with off the test, but not quite yet something he got a built, but you didn’t get a chance to get it implemented on the test. Is that right, Daniel Galindo-Huaman: What was the question. Ted: So you on the test bit up in the attic, you were able to get it to work.
It looks like it was charging batteries and it’s a it’s functioning and I think it is. So maybe confirm that is that is the test, but actually working upstairs. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: Yeah, just be upstairs is working. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: And with the Testament one and two.
It was getting data from from the batteries. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: The me Ted: Okay, so we Ted: The test. Ted: Sensors and stuff you guys Ted: Have a great time.
Ted: So they’re Ted: Actually tasks to get tested. Michael Thorburn: Your audio is really bad. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: Thank you. Ted: Sensors, is that right Daniel Galindo-Huaman: Yes, well incentive.
We tested. Ted: Well, they were tested on a test bed. Yeah. Ted: Okay, okay. And let’s see. So lastly I’d like to get a copy of your presentation. If you can email me a copy, please. That would be great. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: No problem.
Ted: And is there is there a plan for getting all the parts back together. Maybe you can maybe you can put all the parts back up in the attic during the summer or something like that and be ashamed to lose everything that you guys got Daniel Galindo-Huaman: I’ll be likely to do it. If you guys may have permission, I would, I will.
I’ll even finish test one three because Michael Thorburn: We need to coordinate that, but please coordinate that with me. Ted: No problem. Happy good Ted: That’d be good. Yeah. Otherwise, we’ll lose it.
And we have to start over from scratch again so Ted: So Daniel your coordinate with Dr Thorburn to get the equipment back then. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: I’ll do that. Okay. Ted: That’s it for me. Good job as Ted: A lot and Ted: Architecture in place.
It’s just a kind of got everything. So it looks like a looks like a Ted: Nice. We’re all meeting. Kevin: Thank you. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: Thank you.
Michael Thorburn: Next year you’ll have to augment the internet connection. Professor nice house as well. Michael Thorburn: Okay. Michael Thorburn: Thank you very much, is are there any other questions. We have just a few more minutes.
Michael Thorburn: If not, well congratulations Team. Good job well done. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: And I give Christopher Rodriguez: A special thanks to Mosaic and Daniel Galindo-Huaman: To the elites Kevin and Brian.
Thank you so much for the all your help. Kevin: Thank you. Thank Bryan Castillo: You. Thank you. A great job to my whole team.
Great job to, you know, Ted knight and mosaic for being very accessible and really helping us out. Bryan Castillo: throughout this entire academic year. Um, I know it’s been stressful, especially when you guys have a lot of other things going on, you’re dealing with Bryan Castillo: With different projects, but for the most thing.
I know he was dealing with Bryan Castillo: projects that are getting would have to correlate with each other very unique in their own design things. So I just want to thank everybody for the contribution and I want to thank the audience for Bryan Castillo: For all good feedback in the positive vibes. You guys have been providing out fill out this presentation. Kevin: Can train Bryan Castillo: I’m going to go ahead and give the Bryan Castillo: Screen Sharing is that ok Dr Thornbury Michael Thorburn: Yes, please. Daniel Galindo-Huaman: Thanks to Be safe.
Michael Thorburn: Okay, the next presentation will start in about five minutes. This is the formula SAE team and this will be the concluding presentation for ‘s session. As a reminder, there is a call trek survey.
Please fill it out to provide the students and me a Michael Thorburn: Assessment of your thoughts as to how the presentation has gone Michael Thorburn: I just uploaded another link to that call track survey in the group chat. Michael Thorburn: Okay, so we’ll begin the next presentation in just about five minutes. Michael Thorburn: Start up again and just, just a couple of minutes. Michael Thorburn: NEXT PRESENTATION. As you can see, it’s going to be the formula SAE team.
Michael Thorburn: Is everybody from the team in the room at this point. Christian Garcia: Might be missing a couple of members. I know. Christian Garcia: I’ll double check.
Rafael castro: Here I Christian Garcia: Think we’re all here. Yeah. Christian Garcia: Yeah, okay. Christian Garcia: YeahWe’re all here. Michael Thorburn: Okay. All right. Well, one minute then Michael Thorburn: Welcome back. This is the Expo. Michael Thorburn: Kelsey Ellie’s first virtual Expo.
Michael Thorburn: And this will be the last presentation and ‘s session. Michael Thorburn: We have a full complement of presentation presentations tomorrow, beginning at two o’clock in the afternoon lasting until six Michael Thorburn: And then that will be the last day of the expo 2020 Michael Thorburn: I encourage you to come to as many of the sessions as you’re able tomorrow and support, support the students and the advisors and just help make the activity is as best as it can be. Michael Thorburn: If there are no initial questions that I think that we’re ready to begin, let me welcome the formula se engine integration team. Christian Garcia: Thank you, Professor over Christian Garcia: Good afternoon. Christian Garcia: My name is Christian, I will be introducing the formula see engine integration team.
Christian Garcia: In the team. We had myself. We had Rafael Castro and re Karen and this Renee Santiago colon trong Alexandra Ferguson yet in our faculty advisor Christopher Bachman Christian Garcia: So as I mentioned, I will be introducing the team. A little background about formula SAE we are a college competition series I focused on developing a one person for myself vehicle.
Christian Garcia: Much like the ones that are pictured on the image to the right. I we focus on testing the vehicles acceleration abilities cornering abilities and Christian Garcia: mixing those two together to do a durability test, which we call endurance. It’s a about 13 mile long race that’s about half a marathon and Christian Garcia: That tests, the ability of our vehicle to be able to stand up to the stresses that that it might go through in a natural competition style like that.
Christian Garcia: We also focus on the market marketability of our vehicle, but that’s beyond the scope of this is something I was just to be mentioned. Christian Garcia: As mentioned earlier, we are incorporating a new engine. This year, usually the team has used 150 600 twin cylinder CVT driven engine from a scooter, which is picture to the left and then this year we’re moving on to the Christian Garcia: Which is a single cylinder sequential Transmission, Engine.
So it’s a difference between switching from an automatic tool manual transmission last picture to the right, coming from a motorcycle. Christian Garcia: The scope of this project as many mentioned earlier is the suspension the drive train in the power train and the electrical which will all work together and will be incorporated in the in the rear end of the vehicle, even though Christian Garcia: A lot of the components from the rest of the car do affect vehicle dynamics will only be focused on the rear end of the vehicle. Christian Garcia: And now I pass it on to refer to talk about poetry.
Rafael castro: Thank you, Christian I’m halfway out. I worked on the power train section. So I overlooked the intake designed exhausted and the shifting for this year’s car. Rafael castro: So just, just wanted to mention this newer engine that we’re running with your boxes 90 pounds and the older engine that Christian mentioned was roughly 160 pounds with the gearbox.
So we would decrease in size, but at the same time, we increase the hundred cc’s of displacement Rafael castro: And this will give a good power to weight ratio, something that we’re desired so to the right we have the plenum Rafael castro: Before the plan on there is a restrictor the plan on and then there’s a runner. It goes into the head of the engine and then coming out of the head. You have a header and you got a muffler. Next slide. Rafael castro: So, see the are some of the specs.
We’re going to be running a 28 millimeter throughout the body restricted diameter is per sec rules which is 20 millimeters for gasoline. Rafael castro: And the plenum is roughly 1.5 times larger than our engine displacement. It’s basically platinum is basically just the reservoir for fresh charge entering the engine. Rafael castro: Is going to be an eight inch runner and then 1.8 inch in diameter for the intake system for the exhaust is going to be roughly 2.84 feet.
Rafael castro: Going to be inch and a half into diameters things still three or four for us work ability the sound requirements we have to meet at 1600 RPM 103 decibels level C and 5500 RPM. We have to meet 110 decibels level see next slide Christian Rafael castro: So this is a cam geometry of the stock 690 cam shop to the right, mainly will be dealing with the intake system, which would be the blue line. Rafael castro: And then the exhaust system would be the black line. So we have roughly 228 degrees of Rafael castro: Duration and this is basically our working time for both for the intake and then for the exhaust. We have roughly 211 Rafael castro: Degrees of duration, and that’s a basically our window of when the valves open and close Rafael castro: When these valves open and closed pressure waves are created and it’s basically the timing of the pressure ways to increase airflow into the engine and to increase airflow away from the engine, which is also considered scavenging excellent Rafael castro: So this is the runner links below the runner lengths are dependent on the timing of the pressure waist.
Rafael castro: As I mentioned, so we usually want to have a bigger differential and pressure between the differential and exhaust or either the Rafael castro: Combustion chamber and the platinum. So we want to have more flow intervention and more flow out to the engine and this curve basically just tells us that the higher we we designed this tune letter header for Rafael castro: The shorter becomes and the lower the RPM. The longer the runner becomes.
Next slide. Rafael castro: So this is a muffler that we’re going to be using for this year’s car we are working with your machine Buddha and we opted for the alpha muffler. It’s an absorptive type of muffler.
So on the picture to the right. Right hand corner up top. Rafael castro: The gases are going to come in and then there’s perforated tubing inside and that allows the expansion of the gases to expand. Rafael castro: And within that perforated to being we have a packing material that’s supposed to deaden supposed to quiet out the sound of the of the exhaust and then we have an insert as well.
That’s going to be decreasing the sound level by destructive interference. Rafael castro: Next slide. Rafael castro: So for the shifting. We want it to be based around the driver so you wanted to driver location, the amount of time, the driver takes to put the hand on the shifter and Rafael castro: And the travel that they should have through requires and wanted us to incorporated something simple that’s functional and something that’s easy to manufacturer. Next slide.
Rafael castro: So these are some of the specs for the final design that was chosen. So the column shift there on the right hand picture to the right is a point three inches from the center of the shaft to the right hand side. Rafael castro: And it’s roughly about six and an eight inches from the center of the shaft to the left hand side of the lever. Rafael castro: On the column shop diameters half an inch came all locations are located five and three quarters of an inch from the center of the shaft both left and to the right.
Rafael castro: The travel that the shift.
There’s going to be traveling is 1.38 inches. So it’s very minimal. And then the force required to activate the shifter from the drivers nine pounds.
The bottom picture. Rafael castro: The shift mount is going to have a 2.75 inches long. It has required Tony degrees of shaft angle and that accumulate through roughly little under an inch of travel with the 13 pounds of force.
Rafael castro: Next light and then I hand it off to Christian for electrical Christian Garcia: Thank your phone so ruffle mentioned that will be talking about the electrical system. The main job for the electoral system is to make sure that the engine control unit, the ECU Christian Garcia: communicates with the engine sensors and the control. So we have to make a harness that’s made out of wire wire and ends that that I’m not picture to just simplify so that that way. Christian Garcia: You can get a better idea.
And we also have to tune the end so that so that it could run. Make sure that the engine works. And we also have to to nice you to make sure that it runs with the 20 millimeter restrictor as I mentioned before, which is part of the rules. Christian Garcia: Are explainn to the right there.
That is the actual map that we were using. It’s a fuel map that’s something that Christian Garcia: Is still being worked on. But that’s just some what just to explain how it looks on any we have a loop of what basically happens when there’s driver input the ECU Christian Garcia: Gets the input and according to what this answer is in the controls are doing the engine performs and we get the big vehicle output and Christian Garcia: These are some other requirements we need to have a constant power supply to the issue of at least Christian Garcia: 12 volts, which we were able to do since we are not going to stay in idle. Most of the time we will be performing so will be above about 4000 RPM charging voltage from the stadium, which would have to be about 12 to 15 volts. Christian Garcia: And we were able to achieve that, as when we get on.
I don’t. We were able to get around 13.1 waltz according to the ECU since it displays, some of the values Christian Garcia: We also have our current protection, just in case there’s any type of issue with the electrical Christian Garcia: With the wiring while we needed at least 10 fields for each component. And we were able to achieve that, because we have both for exercise for any future expansions. If in case we need to add any more sensors.
Christian Garcia: And then the necessary safety features which would be the kill switches which I’ll demonstrate. Next slide. Christian Garcia: Which are necessary by the rules of formulas at all requirements are compliant to the requirements i. So as mentioned earlier, this is a visualization Christian Garcia: visualization of what the wiring looks like the state or which provides support to the director firing.
Christian Garcia: That goes through the masters which which allows the part of look through the both kills, which is one of the kids, which is triggered. Christian Garcia: Then the power does not go to the power distribution luck and the Punisher you should block goes out to the ECU plus up any other sensors are required. Christian Garcia: The top and the bottom at the top is the feedback controls and then the bottom was the controls for the engine.
So it just includes the fuel pump. Christian Garcia: The injector. The and then the smartphone which controls the spark plug in controls the spark of the engine I this is our progress so far I’m only going to play a little bit because I know that the quality is not so good with articles. Christian Garcia: So that’s just basically the engine running at this point.
And then the last thing that the electrical system that Christian Garcia: We added that display that was developed in the specifications were using a control from the Arduino using a Christian Garcia: Protocol as canvas protocol so that we can get the information from the ECU. It’s made out of carbon fiber panel because Christian Garcia: It’s one of the ones that we were able to manufacture similarly to last the last rendition the functionality is RPM for the LED and RPM for the LED for the RPM and a four digit seven second display for the RPM as well for the driver to have a quick reference of the RPM. Christian Garcia: Low fuels wall just one led for the low fuel on the high temperature margin, just in case the engine is at a certain temperature that we do not need it to be. Christian Garcia: And like your position sensor, since we are using a manual transmission.
This year, and I’ll hand it off to college, trying to talk about the drug trade. Colin Truong: Awesome, thanks Christian. So as mentioned, my name is calling I’m responsible for the drive train portion of the engine integration project. Colin Truong: So the portion. The purpose of the drive train is to transmit power from the engine to the rear drive wheels because cars rear wheel drive.
Colin Truong: So this project will encompass the integration of a new system that chain and sprocket system, we used to use a CVT style transmission Colin Truong: And so this is an entirely new system that we’re trying to integrate into this new car. Colin Truong: Another part of this project is to maximize power delivery to the rear wheels at all velocities Colin Truong: So we’re trying to get the most amount of power when we’re stopping. We’re trying to come out a turns. How can we maximize the most power of his engine without touching the internal and transmission gear set Colin Truong: And all these components that we’re trying to design.
We’re trying to decipher a minimum safety factor of three. Next slide please. Colin Truong: Looks like Colin Truong: Next slide. Okay, so this is the system overview of how the cars gonna work so powers produce from the engine.
Colin Truong: gets transmitted to the transmission gets output through the engine sprocket and this outfit spark is connected to a chain to larger sprocket that’s connected to the read rivals and this rocket will in turn drive the drive the differential axles and we’ll try the rear drive It’s like Colin Truong: So this is a graph representing the 246 foot time resource rocker ratio. So we have a requirement of trying to land the 246 full time under five and a half seconds. The reason why we chose this was because some of the top 10 or 20 teams have Colin Truong: 20 to 46 foot time of less than five and a half seconds. So that said, our benchmark for what we’re trying to achieve.
We chose, we decided to reach a Colin Truong: You decided to choose the sprocket ratio three and 3.25 and that it explains us a tuning 46 foot time I 5.4 seconds. So that means that requirement. Next slide please. Colin Truong: This graph represents the RPM and velocity perspective ratio so highlighted in purple is the sprocket ratio 3.25 each every peak represents a shift point in the transmission.
So on the very first peak. Colin Truong: You start shifting on about 7600 RPM and we reach a velocity of 30 miles an hour, which is perfectly fine our courses are designed to travel any faster than 60 miles an hour and realistically, we will be traveling around 30 to 40 miles an hour. Colin Truong: Throughout the course.
So this means that requirement as well. Next slide please. Colin Truong: So this is a differential and what a differential does it vectors, the torque from the engine to the drive wheels differently.
Colin Truong: For example, if you’re trying to go into a left hand turn your left wheels can be traveling considerably slower than the wheel on the right hand side. Colin Truong: And in doing so, the right hand side will when you travel faster. And if they’re traveling at the same velocity of the same amount of torque applied.
Colin Truong: You’re going to be drifting through the corners. That’s not what we’re trying to do, trying to go around as straight as possible. So that’s what a differential does Colin Truong: And this is the type of different. This is the differential that we’re going to be using this year. The Salisbury type differential made by a company called Drexler Colin Truong: Want to Salisbury type differential is a comprises of friction disks and also gears and side of the differential itself.
Colin Truong: What happens is that these fish and this will start seeing that here together and grip together, forcing the two wheels either go straight in a straight line acceleration for freely rotate and vector, the truck and three minutes to drive meals when necessary. Next slide please. Colin Truong: This is a differential carrier. So in order to attach all these components to the vehicle. The differential carriers needed so Colin Truong: On this differential carry their shoes.
That’s a whole there’s ones on top of the ones on the bottom. Colin Truong: The bottom we mounted directly to the frame and the top will be mounted to the frame via change mentioning that I will speak about shortly. Colin Truong: What happens is is that we need to pull this different carrier backwards.
It will pivot about the bottom and pull it backwards attention the chain. Colin Truong: And that we’re facing a 150 pounds force tension force. And so we we ran the FDA and we decided that Colin Truong: The material is best suited for this application we send me 75 to six aluminum. This gives the safety factor three and a half with the high stress concentration Colin Truong: Located and the second picture on the right, highlighted in green. So, this meant that requirement of having a safety factor of 3.0.
Next slide please. Colin Truong: Is there a chain tension or somebody on the picture on the left, that’s where it’s going to be located in the entire assembly. Colin Truong: So one of our requirements for this was to have a minimum ADJUSTABILITY OF one inch were able to exceed this requirement by utilizing to Colin Truong: Rot ends. Look at our picture on the right and aluminum hex bar in the center is all threaded together.
And because they’re threatened. Colin Truong: And because of the geometry of the rod ends, we were able to have a maximum ADJUSTABILITY OF two and a half inches. So that’s great as well that meet that requirement. Next slide. Colin Truong: And so I’m having an off to Alexandra and he’s going to talk about our differential sprocket carrier Alexandro Castaneda: Think you call it, and it’s not like Sandra and I’ll be speaking about the differential sprocket adapter Alexandro Castaneda: The main function of this component in the Detroit transit system to transmit power from the change driven sprocket differential in order for the wheels to charge forward.
Alexandro Castaneda: This component standing between the chain sprocket and this and that differential. As you can see, and the rendering Alexandro Castaneda: The chain is attached from the engine, transmission to the dry sprocket whether what adapted connects to the differential faster by yeah heavy duty retaining ring clip. Next slide please. Alexandro Castaneda: When the team purchase it directs the differential the sprocket adapter material was provided as part of the bundle.
It was provided with two inches and thickness by nine inches in diameter. Alexandro Castaneda: seven pound and let me know and 7075 to six alloys, the wrong stuck material was inner brooch in the center that will match the dress differential outerbridge splines when attached. I guess the intellect eager Alexandro Castaneda: From the specific material provided the main requirements for the data design West make a lightweight a strong and durable component that can maintain the fatigue and it took from the sprocket Alexandro Castaneda: The target West for the crease its way down to 20% for from the original stuff material, so it can you still have the mountain to the differential.
We know play and passed into the sprocket Alexandro Castaneda: A factor of safety, no less than three and to create any issues, preventing colliding with any other components and it’s likely Alexandro Castaneda: After for previous concepts in the final design explainn the measurements to take in consideration with from the bullpen and provided from the sprocket chosen by the subsystem. Alexandro Castaneda: Which are hundred 50 millimeters by six old pattern that design also needed to keep the broad conceptual concentric to the old pattern as most accurate for weight distribution. Alexandro Castaneda: The rough measurement for the final design or seven inches diameter by one one inch and height with a 45 degree angle. Alexandro Castaneda: Finish finish element analysis simulation was tracks to to the part and 9700 inch bound to understand where the fillers may occur through find a design and mute the safety factor by Alexandro Castaneda: Removing the material in front of a triangles that we have partner was cut down to 1.09 pounds to meet the target.
Alexandro Castaneda: Australia to remove material wise to analyze compression intention to explain with design material will fail. Alexandro Castaneda: The plots explainn as a figure with a red coloring where the boats William place are the most high stress concentrations Alexandro Castaneda: The most critical stage of the components, you have the potholes. Alexandro Castaneda: Align and consider to the differential on the left side of the screen, you can see that there’s a 3D print mockup part that was made for assurance placement purposes. Alexandro Castaneda: And engineering sketches having creating order to continue with metal machining the proper mounted signature considering Sigler parts require special tool as well, different approach in operations to meet accuracy.
Next slide please. Alexandro Castaneda: And I would like to introduce Renee for suspension system. Rene: Thank you, Alex.
Hello, my name is Renee and Ricky and I will be talking about suspension this picture you can see you where it is a reference all car and some of the components will be going over. Next slide. Rene: Our objective was mentioned was engineer I fabricates mentioned that maintain the maximum friction between the tires of the road to accelerating breaking churning all along the driver to maintain your vehicle while it’s been operating Rene: System, the composer, the suffering control arm so we push rock. They’ll crank operate, how they spend on and I’ll be explaining you the all these different teacher.
Next slide please. Rene: Again, this is system or have you started with the top left is a shock and spring assembly which has its linkages, which are the server. Rene: Triangle, which is the background and the push rock. Let’s connect to it.
These are just with the loads that the tire experiencing. Rene: And it will be transferring them to the chassis vehicle following all the control on the upper lower ones which attach the will suddenly to the chassis. Rene: Following that is the operate, which houses the spill assembling the bearings and the spindle, which actually received the axles and which can have the power to the wheels and Rene: Following those spindle is a real hub which connects the spindle to the tires along the party transmitted to the tires. Next slide please. Rene: First mentioned design the job.
He was a big factor is because geometry, especially geometry dictates how the world travels during us and therefore the monogram so tired will have to well or doing Bama Bama rewrote Rene: The suspension design we chose double wishbone, and wouldn’t notice at length are not the same. Rene: Which ones are also known as control arms and the top echelon room inches by 12 inches and the bottom and measure about 13 three quarter inch we chose to design because by using design and allows the tire to make a maximum crash and in contact with the ground while in operation. Rene: Along the junction that we chose the resulting was a wall center that measures three and three pottery half inches from the ground.
Rene: This listen very part because depending with a loss and realize the copy here will change if they’re all center is too high because the cup, the cards to experience excessive. Rene: Excessive excessive Jackie forces which causes the tires to lose traction with the ground. But if it’s too low or cause the current experience excessive bottom only which which is very valuable.
And that’s what we chose to have it. Rene: At about three half inches for from the ground. Rene: Next slide please. Rene: Now for top of funnel two components.
Here’s the metro arms and this is randomly chose prior to making this these control arms. We had three case studies perform Rene: In solid works. Lucky observed three different scenarios is are experiencing a positive feeling maximum lateral maximum wants to do and maximum vertical forces. Rene: Coming two cases.
And when they yell it last factor of safety form was found to be maximum water force which Delia South factor of safety about to for each one. Rene: Lengthy charm the top was to 12 inches. Yeah, about 33 quarter.
Each one was about 1.1 pounds and the chosen to make my body water is to because given the, the high strength to weight ratio allow them to be fairly light. Rene: In design using small wall thickness of points you’re 65 and now I’ll be passing out in Riga, so you can continue talking about the rest of the components and we go Enrique Hernandez: All right, thank you read it. So I’m going to be talking about all the components that are housed inside of the wheel. Enrique Hernandez: And the first component.
I’ll be talking about is what we refer to as upright and essentially what this part does it hold a tire suspension system together. As you can see in the figure. The control arms are mounted to the top and bottom bracket.
Say you see there Enrique Hernandez: The total link is mounted on the left. Now, and on the bottom right now. It’s used for the for the push rock and shock assembly. Enrique Hernandez: And the two holes that you see on the right, those two little stuff.
So those are used for the brake calipers and in the center, you’ll see that there’s two Enrique Hernandez: Two bearings there. And those are actually tapered roller bearings. And the reason that we chose those is because tapered roller bearings can take can withstand both radio and axial loads which is exactly what we expect to see during testing. Enrique Hernandez: And that’s the reason why that when we, when we analyze the the upright. We’ve looked at three different case scenarios which was lateral force longitudinal force and vertical force.
Enrique Hernandez: And then we yielded the lowest safety factor, which was three from our Vertical. Vertical case and the region that yielded the highest stresses was the push rod mount and that’s because during a window. We all goes over Enrique Hernandez: The shock absorbers. Most of the load. So, you know, it makes sense for the push right now to, you know, experienced the most amount of stress, but with the safety factor of three.
You know, we don’t expect it. The, the parts of fail, and we should be okay for for competition. Next slide.
Enrique Hernandez: The next component that I’ll be talking about is the spindle and basically what this this part does, it’s in direct contact with the drive shafts of the car. Enrique Hernandez: And the barons of the barons that sit at the end of the drive shaft sit inside that contour pocket that you see in at the center of the part I’m so for this part, we were concerned about contacts dresses, because the part is made out of 7075 aluminum. Enrique Hernandez: So even though 7575 of aluminum is a high strength alloy, it’s still aluminum.
So we wanted to protect. So that’s why we find those protective it’s those protective still inserted say you see in the figure. Enrique Hernandez: That way though our spindle went to get damaged by Dr.
Chefs Enrique Hernandez: And Enrique Hernandez: Yeah, so, so this part was analyzed. Enrique Hernandez: By looking at three different case scenarios which was lateral force longitudinal force and the max torque output coming from the drive train system and the case that yielded the low safety factor for came from the, the torque the torque load. Enrique Hernandez: And the region that they yielded the highest amount of highest amount of stress was around the brake rotor bolt bolt holes, but with the safety factor for, you know, we should be more than fine when when we test. Next slide.
Enrique Hernandez: And so the last component. I’ll be talking about is the wheel hub this this component this directly secured onto the wheels using the wheel sets that you see in the figure. Enrique Hernandez: And at the end of the wheel hub. It actually receives the bolts coming from the spindle and it’s sandwiches to the the brake rotor in between.
Enrique Hernandez: And similarly, we use the same case scenarios, the same case loads from the spindle. Enrique Hernandez: Right here with the hub, just because they’re in contact and they’re going to be experiencing the same types of loads and this time we saw the most amount of stress at the spokes, which are the triangular the triangular sections that had the wheel studs. Enrique Hernandez: But we don’t expect the Enrique Hernandez: The parts of fell so we should be good. You know, once once we start testing and I’ll hand it back to you on a Christian.
Christian Garcia: I think Enrique, in conclusion, ballparks, pretty much. I’ve been designed. We have no preliminary testing, other than the analysis that we we went through.
Christian Garcia: Up but we’re ready to build as soon as we get the, you knowWe’re going to get right back into it. And this project is at a standstill. It’s not complete.
I, I do see in the future that we will and completing it Christian Garcia: And like I mentioned, it’s just momentarily. Pause I Christian Garcia: Think this is a this is a nice way of thank you guys for your support thank everybody for your support and Christian Garcia: Yeah, thank you. Michael Thorburn: Okay, well thank you team to for the interesting presentation.
When you say you’re going to get right back at it. Are you sticking around for graduate school, or you just determined participate in the competition. Christian Garcia: I myself am planning on staying around for graduate school but FSA allows any student who just graduated to participate, six months after they graduate. Okay. Michael Thorburn: Um, are there other questions just people have some questions, please unmute yourself before you ask a question.
Martin Cholico: I had one question. Martin Cholico: The year explaining engine speed and her gear. Martin Cholico: Displayed on the dash. Is there any reason you’re not displaying vehicle speed or miles per hour.
Christian Garcia: For simplicity sake I since the electrical system already was encompasses only the main system, which was just test to run the engine, I would explain more than that, the RPM itself and Christian Garcia: Anything other than what we’re already planning would have included more hardware that the team would not have been able to Christian Garcia: Add to so that would make the, the scope, a little larger than then we were able to handle Okay, thank you. Martin Cholico: And I have a second question, if that’s fine. Martin Cholico: With 5.5 or 5.4 acceleration time Martin Cholico: Do you know what place. If you were to land at exactly 5.4 seconds will place you would get in last year’s calm.
Martin Cholico: At the acceleration Colin Truong: Off the top of my head. No, I do. We did have to do like four and a half second acceleration runs, but that was like 123 but off the top my head.
I can’t answer that. Okay. Michael Thorburn: Other questions. Michael Thorburn: Okay well team, congratulations on a job well done. Michael Thorburn: Good luck in your competition.
This summer I understand from the chat room that it’s a virtual competition. Christian Garcia: Yes. Michael Thorburn: Okay.
Christian Garcia: So yeah, so we’re going to be doing only the static events. Chris Bachman: Yeah, thanks. Thanks team. I really, really enjoyed working with you this year. Chris Bachman: super bummed like you are not to finish the car.
But if any of you are around this summer. I’d love to continue to work on it and really impressed with the progress you did make you know up and threw up and through March. And so I think you guys should be proud of it. Chris Bachman: And yeah, so uh so yeah look forward to see what you guys accomplished after this Rafael castro: Thanks, man. Alexandro Castaneda: Thank you, everyone.
Thanks everyone. Michael Thorburn: There’s a question in the chat room. What’s the date for the virtual competition.
Michael Thorburn: You know, We see Christian Garcia: Here we have the it’s because they moved everything around. So I think what what ended up happening is the got all the Christian Garcia: SEC collegiate series together. Christian Garcia: I think we’re going to do just one Massa event in which basically BA formula. And I think arrow design. I’m not sure.
I think also a formula is also part of it. Everybody’s doing that one event. So everything’s going to spend out Christian Garcia: But I have to double check on that. Give me, give me one second.
I’m busy. I don’t know if anybody else can find it faster than I can. Colin Truong: Force into June. It’s like a 20th or 26 Or something like that.
Rene: June 17 to 20th Colin Truong: I was close so Christian Garcia: Thank you. Michael Thorburn: You guys looking at the chat room. There’s another question. Michael Thorburn: You guys use simulating for any section of the project.
Christian Garcia: I think they could be incorporated. It’s something that, like I mentioned earlier, it’s not necessary, but he will make things. It might be very good. Christian Garcia: Adapter to to integrate some sort of semi link. Christian Garcia: Program.
So I think off the top of my head, I wouldn’t. I wouldn’t. Maybe.
Imagine the electrical Christian Garcia: In terms of maybe timing, but it’s just a, I think I haven’t used similarly so much as to say, this is exactly what we can apply it towards Michael Thorburn: Okay, everybody. Well, thanks so much. This concludes our session this afternoon.
Michael Thorburn: Don’t forget, we have an ultra arms. Michael Thorburn: You have a quality tricks survey. Michael Thorburn: So that you can give some feedback to the students.
We’ve also got a full complement of presentations tomorrow, starting at two o’clock. Michael Thorburn: I want to thank the audience and all of the teams who presented was very good session. Thank you.